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The free electron (negative charge) and the hole (positive charge) are a pair. The result of light of sufficient energy dislodging an electron from its bond in a crystal, which creates a hole. III.A.3 Pair Production. In the process of generation, a covalent bond is broken and a bound electron is transformed into a free electron. Although the majority of current carriers in n-type material are electrons, there are also a few holes that are created when electron-hole pairs are thermally generated. As a result the e-h pair disappear; this process is called recombination. n i is produced by a dynamic process; free electron hole pairs are continually being generated, while other electron hole pairs are recombining An electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice. These holes are not produced by the addition of the pentavalent impurity atoms. J.Gregory Stacy, W.Thomas Vestrand, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. The process of electron and hole annihilation is known as recombination. This electron is free for conduction about the crystal lattice. Electrons and holes are created by excitation of electron from valence band to the conduction band. View Answer: Answer: Option B. Electron-hole pairs are produced by (a) recombination (b) thermal energy (c) ionization (d) doping. Thermal energy is one of the agents which causes pair generation. Related electrical process: electron - hole pair recombination When the excited electron meets the hole in the valence band, it may occupy that place. The electrons are called the majority carriers in n-type material. Thermal energy may occasionally free an electron from the crystal lattice as in Figure above (b). The force that drives electrons and holes through a circuit is created by the junction of two dissimilar semiconducting materials, one of which has a tendency to give up electrons… Solution: 15. In the pair production process, an incident gamma ray of sufficiently high energy is annihilated in the Coulomb field of a nearby charged particle, resulting in the creation of an electron–positron pair. Another agent is optical illumination. Other articles where Electron-hole pair is discussed: materials science: Photovoltaics: The electron motion, and the movement of holes in the opposite direction, constitute an electric current. In the semiconductor, free charge carriers are electrons and electron holes (electron-hole pairs). (b) However, thermal energy can create few electron-hole pairs resulting in weak conduction. free-electron concentration is equal to hole concentration (whole pure Si crystal is charge neutral), and either one is represented by the symbol n i, which is called the intrinsic carrier concentration. Recombination of electrons and holes is a process by which both carriers annihilate each other: electrons occupy - through one or multiple steps - the empty state associated with a hole. Both carriers eventually disappear in the process. These pairs are the constituents of electricity. (a) An intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator having a complete electron shell. If the energy released through recombination is in the form of a photon, the process is known as radiative-recombination and is most common for electrons moving fully from the conduction to the valence band. Answer to Electron-hole pairs are produced by(a) recombination(b) thermal energy(c) ionization(d) doping. 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