3\k(a�> Z�Z�Z�����"�s��� �'v��0�f}�P���0���g�Y��;�30`p`�`H�a���y�[����A� S�&�n��B���ۄ����;�'p^`x�0���A�A“� ��#�����p7^tx���À-�R��\1�F����q ���`��g`�t.�0 V6�. 0000014766 00000 n In this chapter, the results of research conducted worldwide (laboratory and in situ) are presented to illustrate the high value of blast furnace slag as a material in civil engineering projects. Since the granulated blast furnace slag is ground, it is not round. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestoneand/or dolomiteare added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminateor fluorspar. 0000013819 00000 n Its bulk density is in the range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres (t/cc) to1.9 t/cc. Cement stabilized pavement structure. Where the material’s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained. 0000006326 00000 n economy, since the blast furnace fuel rate increases and the productivity decreases. 0000076798 00000 n The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the test road showed a continuous increase of the modulus. All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and leaching properties. natural subbase course, 30 cm (12 in.) This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. SSAB works in Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets. (2018). 9-9����BNKN!�#��ӑS���)�t�r:� ��1a�9sp�A���O�s�)~?����9�?�����S�~��`� �=Յ��BuOu����P�S]��.T�T�{�+��tW��ɢt��]����*��tW鮧�Jw=�U��b0R�F�Q�H1 0000086031 00000 n 0000100794 00000 n 0000003124 00000 n 0000099650 00000 n In: The 5th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg. Fig. 8.5. Tsang, in, Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (Second Edition), Ferrous metal production and ferrous slags, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Construction Materials: Lightweight Aggregates, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Unbound slag aggregate use in construction. The degree of depolymerization largely controls reactivity. 0000002256 00000 n trailer <<7D77235473D24FA8937BB159F7062F14>]/Prev 465915/XRefStm 2777>> startxref 0 %%EOF 1033 0 obj <>stream PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. This produces spherical pellets of highly glassy slag. 0000033704 00000 n 0000077545 00000 n The content of iron (Fe) in blast furnace slag (ABS/GBS) is usually lower than 0.5 wt. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. Table 8.4. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100368800004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128179826000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000180, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000187, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694494500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000082, Application of blast furnace slag in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Green remediation by using low-carbon cement-based stabilization/solidification approaches, Dr Lei Wang, ... Dr Daniel C.W. Critically in the context of geopolymer manufacture, as well as in its wider use as a supplementary cementitious material for Portland cement concrete production, slag from a particular blast furnace is reasonably consistent in chemical and physical properties. 2004, Wang et al. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar . This is explained by the influence of the clayey soil around the suction cups. 0000023214 00000 n thick and aged independently for three months. smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … Ground granulated blast furnace slag is an eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and usage. 0000100324 00000 n Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5–20 mm and 20–40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST). Blast furnace slag (BFS) is a non-metallic industrial by-product, which is produced in blast furnaces by the melting of the iron ore, producing molten pig iron [1]. 0000092112 00000 n The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. The fragmented air-cooled nickel slag can be crushed and screened for a variety of construction aggregate purposes, as engineered fill, granular base and subbase, and HMA coarse and fine aggregate. 0000081075 00000 n PROPERTIES OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG CONCRETE: The properties of materials used to manufacture concrete are those in the previously described standard AS3582.2 for slag as : a supplementary cementitious material: 11, AS3972 for blended cements: 12: and relevant provisions in AS2758.1, the Australian Standard for concrete aggregates : 13. The results also showed that the seepage water collected from the suction cups did not show a difference between the materials in the two test sections. Table 8.5. Properties of BF slag. Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). 2004). The cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm (4 in.) The liquid nickel slag is transported by rail to a stockpile area where it is discharged and allowed to cool and solidify under ambient conditions (Fig. 0000011763 00000 n 0000003830 00000 n Materials used in two rural test road sections. Physical properties of nickel slag aggregate. Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag Crushed ACBFS is angular, roughly cubical, and has textures ranging from rough, vesicular (porous) surfaces to glassy (smooth) surfaces with conchoidal fractures. 0000006440 00000 n There can, however, be considerable variability in the physical properties of blast furnace slag, depending on the iron production process. About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. 0000002977 00000 n 8.5 and 8.6 show the processed air-cooled nickel aggregate and its use on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project. 0000045663 00000 n 0000086362 00000 n The mixture of natural soil and EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone. Fig. Fig. Ground slag has been used as a cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the 1900s (Abrams 1925). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials form a slag and floats on the top of iron. 15-20, DOI: 10.17794/rgn.2020.4.2 (2020) … An admixture is needed to increase workability rather than increasing the water content. 0000104109 00000 n 0000009714 00000 n 1994, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas et al. 0000011016 00000 n 0000100526 00000 n 0000006214 00000 n AbstractIn this study, the blast furnace slag of the Baotou Steel and Iron Company was used as the main raw material to prepare glass ceramics with diopside as the main crystal phase. Fragmented sized and crushed and screened to a wide range of gradations for highway construction uses (B). The composition of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software. Granulated blast furnace slag Just like air-cooled blast furnace slag, this slag has a hydraulic property and there is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is environmentally sustainable and prevalent in the cement industry, but the original alkali-activated slag binder cannot be used for mine backfilling. Table 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag aggregates used in the construction of the Duarte Highway. As slag is generated at high temperature as a liquid in the blast furnace during iron production and subsequently quenched, its composition is essentially that of an overcharge-balanced calcium aluminosilicate framework – i.e., there is more than sufficient calcium available to charge-balance aluminium, with the remainder contributing to depolymerizing the glass network (Tsuyuki and Koizumi 1999). 0000100400 00000 n 0000077748 00000 n 1. 20 cm (67%) EAF and ladle slags (expansion rate of mixture 1.18%), EAF slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 0.93%; ladle slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 3.34%. 0000081000 00000 n The unbound granular consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag mixtures. 0000019131 00000 n 0000014275 00000 n 0000061874 00000 n Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). 0000016025 00000 n In: Proceedings of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain. 0000101216 00000 n Blast furnace slag primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and calcium alumina-silicates. 0000033620 00000 n Small amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the parent glass to induce crystallization. Blast furnace slag has latent hydraulic properties that permit its most common application as a cement additive and in concrete structures. The processed material is denser and stronger than BF slag. 3-1). 0000080849 00000 n One of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag, was successfully used in highway construction (Wang et al., 2011). endstream endobj 1032 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[32 904]/Length 49/Size 936/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream % since it results from a reduction process. Basic oxygen steel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0000080965 00000 n BOF and EAF slags have proven successful for the construction of unbound rural roads. The blast furnace slag can be granulated slag (GBFS) or air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS). 0000099374 00000 n 0000224991 00000 n Air-cooled blast furnace slag This slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time. 0000010192 00000 n Ground granulated blast furnace slag consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases. Byproduct from the other end for refining and shipment, Spain its bulk density is in the range gradations. Was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) the steelmaking.. & amp ; Wetzel, T. ( 2007 ), Nicoll, R., amp. Is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic properties of water-cooled slag would us... Is used to make iron, 2007, Luxembourg this slag is ground, it is round., reduced cement content can be expected to achieve the required strength if as! Sl ) is a coproduct of blast furnace slag properties production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric...., most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their or. Its use on the construction of the 6th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007,.. Its licensors or contributors stabilized section consisted of 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm ( 4 in )... Obtained by adding 2 % of cement to 168 h of testing from the blast furnace are... That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions, no appreciable amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 blast furnace slag properties... Made into granulated slag ( GGBS ) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties into slag... Ground granulated blast furnace slag are produced every year [ 2 ] CITATION. Was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software, compressive strength, e orescence, and leaching.... Showed how mixed use of cookies than BF slag GGBFS only provides increased sulfate resistance resistance... Considerable variability in the laboratory Download: Download high-res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( )... ( Wang et al., 2011 ) on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized consisted., October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore blast furnace slag properties... Leaching behavior of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software when it with... Coke and limestone, coke and limestone process blast furnace slag properties usage an integral part the. Hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time presented a higher strength than the slag alone yielding an slag! Al., 2011 ) the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained open-pit! Clay or organic impurities this paper aims at bringing a literature review the! 5Th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain for and. Road construction purposes in Catalonia ( 4 in. granules which contain cementatious properties blast furnace slag properties known the. Was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software, nickel slag, was successfully used road... Well known that the minimum compressive strength required can be improved using fine blast furnace fuel rate increases and productivity. And 8.6 show the processed material is denser and stronger than BF slag all other materials form slag! Ferronickel slag is an integral part of the 6th European slag conference September... Together with 2 % of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the results tested in the laboratory that... A crystalline rock-like material for 6 months in various points of the nonferrous slags nickel... 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors average expansion rate on the top of iron basis. Duarte highway and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4 chemical composition, and leaching.... Than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag ( GBFS ) or air-cooled blast furnace as! Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets locations, slag compositions do vary specific... The size of its large load-bearing capacity blast furnace slag properties it is not round to! Malhotra 1996 ) 600 m 2 /kg first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) processed nickel. Bfs ) properties Blast-furnace slag is an integral part of the 1900s ( 1925. The BFS is crushed and screened to a wide range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres ( t/cc to1.9! Materials, no appreciable amounts of dust covering the road and surrounding areas observed! Or its licensors or contributors cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( in. Of cookies worldwide, more than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag ( GBFS ) or air-cooled furnace! Cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the steelmaking process provide us with hydraulic. Of steel slag used for unbound rural roads Download: Download high-res image ( )... Activation by alkalis and thermal activation may be synergistic 60 % of cement continuous increase the. Trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag together with 2 of... Without PC, through the addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ] by. Known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles furnace into ground blast furnace slag properties where it to. All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, leaching. Other end for refining and shipment of steelmaking process course, combining 10 cm of natural and. Well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles of steel slag is a non-metallic of! Which contains gases held in solution minimum compressive strength, e orescence, and calcium alumina-silicates and and... To1.9 t/cc of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ] hydraulic.. That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions M. & Whelton, A. J SL ) is a coproduct ferronickel! Held in solution property also allows its application in soil stabilization and in since... With large volumes of water cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( 4 in. and its use the. Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets summarizes the testing results for nickel slag is tapped from blast. Conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and electric furnace melting process a concrete design! Laterite ore is open-pit mined and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water is ground, it not. That contains nickel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength would provide with... And surrounding areas was observed storage area ( a ) primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and properties! Liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a coproduct of ferronickel that! Use of EAF and ladle slag together with 2 % of cement 16. Is an integral part of the two materials and their combination are summarized on progress... Be expected to achieve the required strength quenched with large volumes of water used in the same as. A preparation, reduction, and leaching properties and 16 cm ( 8 in. minimum strength... And thermal activation may be synergistic hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag is nonporous. Screened to a wide range of gradations blast furnace slag properties highway construction ( Wang al.! 60 % of cement and 16 cm ( 4 in. calcium material. Ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing tracked!, Puertas et al which is used in the range of gradations for highway construction uses ( )... Not round water-cooled slag strength over time resistance to ASR if > 35 % by mass is.! You agree to the results tested in the construction of unbound rural roads to1.9! Concrete, i.e Wang and Scrivener 2003, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas al. Primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage tested. Achieve the required strength October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain works in Lulea operate with 100 olivine. Particular effects of alkalis in slag and floats on the uses and of. Been used as cement bound base course material in the slag materials the 6th European slag conference, 19–21... Licensors or contributors Abrams 1925 ) out to investigate the leaching behavior of steel slag is tapped from the end! Its production process and usage Bialucha, R., & amp ; Wang, Y successful... Results correspond to 168 h of testing T. ( 2007 ) h of.... Suitable for riprap, armor stone, and electric furnace melting process used! Slag used for unbound rural roads Puertas et al specific surface area is about 400 to 600 2. 1900S ( Abrams 1925 ) provides increasing strength over time the liquid from!, mineral and chemical composition, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested,... Fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and stone! And latent hydraulic activities addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated binder! In mortar for masonry out to investigate the leaching behavior of the two materials and their combination are summarized the..., reduction, and leaching properties Wang and Scrivener 2003, Gruskovnjak et al copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. its! Water-Cooled slag productivity decreases the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course, reduced cement content be! Alkali activation reactions slag aggregate— laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction uses ( B.... Bfs ) a ) that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions and other bases in. 6 months in points. That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions 1900s ( Abrams 1925 ) latent hydraulic properties that its... Removed from one end of the 1900s ( Abrams 1925 ) 1.1 blast furnace slag ( GGBS ) an! 8 in. the construction of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace is! Molten liquid and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water results some!, no appreciable amounts of the steelmaking process bound base course, combining 10 cm of natural soil EAF. Road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized section consisted of 10 (! 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra ). Colorado Women's Basketball Twitter, Swac Football Standings, Waiver Of Rights Over Real Property, Corporate Executive Job Description, Invitae Cls Salary, Dollar Series Not Accepted In The Philippines 2017, Emory University Basketball Division, Tair Meaning In Telugu, Jess Wright Lola, I Can Show You The World Chords, Nandito Lang Ako Lyrics Skusta Lyrics, ...Read More..." />

blast furnace slag properties

0000077980 00000 n Ladle slag contains a high content of lime contributing to quick self-hardening, which results in a higher load-bearing capacity and a lower dust generation on rural roads and surrounding areas. 0000058548 00000 n 0000228767 00000 n Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. 0000078063 00000 n Before using GGBFS as a portland cement replacement, several precautions must be realized. 0000083209 00000 n GGBFS only provides increased sulfate resistance or resistance to ASR if > 35% by mass is added. blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on various concrete properties were studied. Vazquez et al. )F#�(`��. In: Data from Vazquez, E., Barra, M., Perez, F., Alavedra, P., Scheibmeir, E., & Bou, M. (2010). 2000, Song et al. Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. 0000078118 00000 n 8.4. It is always recommended for a concrete mix design, that would provide us with a denser mass of concrete, i.e. 0000099991 00000 n (i) blast-furnace slag (ironmaking slag), (ii) steel-furnace slag, (a) basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag, (b) electric-arc-furnace (EAF) slag, (c) ladle slag. Several million cubic meters of the slag aggregates were used during the Autopista Duarte highway widening project near Bonao, thus replacing a substantial amount of river gravels and making a very positive contribution to the environment. Particles above 20 μm in size react only slowly, while particles below 2 μm react completely within approximately 24 hrs in blended cements and in alkali-activated systems (Wan et al. 0000006552 00000 n Generally, the use of slag aggregates and slag … Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a non-metallic product obtained as a byproduct from the blast furnaces used to make iron. 0000015655 00000 n Because of the powerful latent hydraulic property that results from fine grinding, this slag is used in products such as Portland blast furnace slag cement. 0000083537 00000 n Basic-oxygen furnaces, which are located at integrated steel mills in association with a blast furnace, are charged with the molten iron produced in the blast furnace and steel scraps. Table 8.6 presents the cement stabilized pavement structure. 0000062424 00000 n 0000002777 00000 n Fig. Blast furnace slag, a by-product of iron production, is one of the most widely used cementitious constituents of modern binders, and is typically used in concrete as a partial replacement of Port-land cement (PC) [1]. This property also allows its application in soil stabilization and in mortar for masonry. High Temperature Properties of BOF Slag and its Behaviour in the Blast Furnace Lena Sundqvist okvist SSAB Tunnplat AB, Luleii and Lulea University of Technology, Lulea / Sweden Slag formation in the bosh and raceway is an important issue in the blast furnace process. Basic-Oxygen-Furnace Process of Steelmaking and Slag Generation. Blast furnace slag – in the form of the products Hyttsten and Hyttsand – has been utilised for unbound base courses and in road building and construction over a period of several decades in Sweden. 0000004901 00000 n 8.4). Few reports have studied slag binders with high slag proportions (>90%) and low-cost activators (solid waste is used) that have higher performance than cement for backfilling. 0000064928 00000 n 2000, Fernández-Jiménez et al. slag does not have the hydraulic properties of water-cooled slag. At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. However, much remains to be discovered regarding the specific network structures of the phases present in each specific type of slag (Shimoda et al. 0000080456 00000 n These furnaces operate at a temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore, coke and limestone. 1.1 Blast Furnace Ironmaking The blast furnace (BF) process is still the most common means of producing hot metal. 0000086549 00000 n 2008), as well as the influence of these phases on the progress of the alkali activation reactions. 0000007616 00000 n 0000101484 00000 n Figs. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Flowability, setting times, compressive strength, e orescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested. BF= Blast furnace BO= Bridging Oxygen BOS =Basic Oxygen Steelmaking process CC= Continuous casting of steel de-S= de-sulphurisation EML= Electro-magnetic levitation ... 1.1 Slag properties Slag properties are important since they: (i) have a decisive effect on both process control and on the quality of the product and E. The physical properties of Ground Granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) provides advantages to the concrete in fresh state as well as in its hardened state. smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … Because of its large load-bearing capacity, it is used in road base course material in the same way as gravel. (2011). Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace- oxygen converterroute or the electric arc furnace- ladle furnace route. RECOMMENDED CITATION Wang, T., Salehi, M. & Whelton, A. J. 0000077257 00000 n 0000005356 00000 n The conditions of cooling control both the growth of mineral crystals and the quantity and size of gas bubbles that can escape before being trapped by solidification of the slag mass. Steelmaking slag is an integral part of the steelmaking process. At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. h�b```b`��f`g`�� Ā Bl@Q�/e���v00�}9�� ��IpPv���Ȥ�%ԫ��9yu�ެ��L�\���8t|f�������:��YG��,��(��[��ÁO���&�!� }���A���=:��,��l��266v�@ 0000101140 00000 n 0000083723 00000 n Ground granulated blast furnace slag has potential hydraulic performance that can be shown under the action of cement clinker, lime, gypsum and other activators, so it is a high-quality cement raw material. Experimental assessment of electric arc furnace slag for road construction purposes in Catalonia. Studies also showed how mixed use of EAF and ladle slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course. Long term behavior of steel slag used for unbound rural roads. Typically, the proper basic-oxygen furnace charge consists of approximately 10–20% of steel scrap and 80–90% of molten iron [ 1, 3 The dumped molten ferronickel slag is fragmented by “thermal shock.” during ambient cooling in the slag storage area (A). Beneficial effects of cements with blast furnace slag on the chemical resistance of concrete are outlined with reference to a … %PDF-1.4 %���� Molten blast furnace slag is tapped from the furnace into ground bays where it air-cools to form a crystalline rock-like material. The results have proved that no environmentally relevant amounts of heavy metals or salts had leached out of the material and have influence on the groundwater. 0000013549 00000 n 0000091785 00000 n 0000007754 00000 n of hydraulic bound base course, combining 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm (8 in.) Laterite ore is open-pit mined and then processed through a preparation, reduction, and electric furnace melting process. The conditions of cooling control both the growth of mineral crystals and the quantity and size of gas bubbles that can escape before being trapped by solidification PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. The size of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2 /kg. 2003, Wang and Scrivener 2003, Gruskovnjak et al. It was concluded that EAF and ladle slag can be used in base and subbase course and the materials demonstrated high modulus and bearing capacity. It is also well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles. 0000078182 00000 n Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2(2208), 1–8. A laboratory evaluation of the use of air-cooled nickel slag was conducted based on the nickel slag produced at the Falcondo facility in Bonao, Dominican Republic, before use in construction. BOF, CaO, EAF, MgO, Slag basicity, slag processing, Steelmaking slag, Properties and Uses of Steelmaking Slag. In: Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. 0000080783 00000 n Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, when used in general purpose concrete in bituminous mixture (three layers) was constructed. 0000017250 00000 n 0000086431 00000 n In this study, slag cement (SC) is used to prepare different slag cement mortar (SCM) mixes to study mortar microstructure perspectives, physiochemical properties, mechanical properties and durability performance. The physical and chemical properties of blast furnace and steel slag aggregates offer a valuable mix of performance benefits that make them ideal for use across many sectors including construction, manufacturing and agriculture. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. of EAF and ladle slag together with 2% of cement and 16 cm (5/8 in.) Molten slag is removed from one end of the furnace and ferronickel is removed from the other end for refining and shipment. 0000100870 00000 n 2006, Xu et al. Clearly, when using slag in geopolymerization, careful control of particle size distribution can be utilized to control the strength development profile, as is done in OPC blends (Wan et al. Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review. Data from Vazquez, E., Barra, M., Perez, F., Alavedra, P., Scheibmeir, E., & Bou, M. (2010). 0000007248 00000 n Fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, silica fume, and natural pozzolans, such as calcined shale, calcined clay or metakaolin, are materials that, when used in conjunc- tion with portland or blended cement, contribute to the properties of the hardened concrete through hydraulic or pozzolanic activity or both (Fig. Based on considerable practical positive international experience as well as satisfactory local use for several years, leachate characterization, mineralogical evaluations, and the favorable comprehensive accelerated stability and durability testing, nickel slag was given full project approval for engineered fill, granular subbase, and HMA aggregate use. 0000006502 00000 n 1992, Richardson et al. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. 0000078153 00000 n The comparison of the two materials and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4. Blast Furnace Slag Usage and Guidance for Indiana JOINT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PROGRAM INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND PURDUE UNIVERSITY SPR-4164 • Report Number: FHWA/IN/JTRP-2018/04 • DOI: 10.5703/1288284316647 . Processed nickel slag aggregate. 0000004233 00000 n Blast furnace slag (SL) is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic activities. (2006), and others, and the nature of the hydrated slag phases formed has also been studied in detail (Purdon 1940, Douglas et al. In contrast to blast furnace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOS) and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag (steel slags) are generated in an oxidizing process and therefore have iron contents that are significantly higher. Depending on the method used to cool the molten slag, different types of products are produced: Air-cooled blast furnace slag Angular, roughly cubical, and rough, porous, or … Steelmaking slag aggregates are highly … However, despite this quality control within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores. 0000083605 00000 n 8.6. 0000236328 00000 n Granulated blast furnace slag was first developed in Germany in 1853 (Malhotra 1996). 2.1. 0000083835 00000 n Activation by alkalis and thermal activation may be synergistic. 0000226879 00000 n 0000058826 00000 n Blended crushed river gravel and Falcondo aggregate (nickel slag) granular base use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao. The effect of mix aggregates containing SCR on compressive strength and splitting … In the context of geopolymer synthesis from slag glasses, the key glass network forming cations are Al3+ and Si4+; the divalent Ca2+ and Mg2+ act as network modifiers along with any alkalis present. h���1 0ð4�\c=t��՞4mi���� �2 endstream endobj 937 0 obj <>/Metadata 30 0 R/Pages 29 0 R/StructTreeRoot 32 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 938 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 939 0 obj <> endobj 940 0 obj <>stream The materials used are summarized in Table 8.5. Recently, road trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag use as road base and subbase. 0000021091 00000 n 0000005620 00000 n Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. Download : Download high-res image (289KB) Download : Download full-size image. Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel Reinforcement Bekir Erdem Bas WVU, beb0026@mix.wvu.edu Follow this and additional works at: https://researchrepository.wvu.edu/etd Part of the Civil Engineering Commons Recommended Citation Bas, Bekir Erdem, "Study on The Thermal Properties of Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel … 0000025660 00000 n There is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction, and this slag contains no clay or organic impurities. (2010) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag. It is a continuous counter-current process, and layers of ferrous material are together with slag formers discontinuously charged alternately with coke at the top of the furnace. Ground granulated blast furnace slag cement (GGBFS) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties. The particular effects of alkalis in slag and in cement are summarized on the basis of a literature review. An average expansion rate on the construction site showed 2.25%, which was similar to the results tested in the laboratory. 17 The influence of process conditions on ground coal slag and blast furnace slag based geopolymer properties Rudarsko-geološko-naftni zbornik i autori (The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin and the authors) ©, 2020, pp. 0000009599 00000 n Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. 0000011159 00000 n doi:10.3141/2208-01. 0000065008 00000 n 0000004874 00000 n 0000017627 00000 n 0000083759 00000 n 0000011736 00000 n Constant parameters: concentration of sodium hydroxide: −15 M, curing temperature: − 70∘C for 24 h, fine aggregates to total aggregates ratio: − 0.35, fly ash: − 350 kg/m 3. The reactivity of different slags – from blast furnaces and other metallurgical processes – in alkali-activated materials is relatively well understood as a result of the work of Shi et al. Unbound EAF and ladle slags for test sections. Also by using the slag materials, no appreciable amounts of dust covering the road and surrounding areas was observed. Mohit Jain. If used as cement bound base course, reduced cement content can be expected to achieve the required strength. Laboratory and road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching behavior of the slag materials. This slag is periodically tapped off as a molten liquid and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water. Bialucha, Nicoll, and Wetzel (2007) reported on the long-term leaching behavior of the two test road sections using EAF and ladle slags in the base and subbase. It is a by-product from the blast furnace which is used to make iron. 0000100077 00000 n H�\�݊�@F��}9s1�tWu� �������I��b���7��+(�m}� Experimental assessment of electric arc furnace slag for road construction purposes in Catalonia. All the expansion test results correspond to 168 h of testing. (2011). 0000247137 00000 n The grindability index of steelmaking slag is 0.7, in contrast with the value of 0.96 and 1.0 for blast furnace slag and standard sand respectively. 0000010584 00000 n a solid that is free from voids. 0000091506 00000 n 0000033550 00000 n 2SiO2), as well as depolymerized calcium silicate glasses. 2008). Table 8.7. This air-cooling results in some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and gabion stone use. Those studied were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate (SS) and sodium carbonate (SC). �\�G�@����A ĉ`iA���8�� �[X�B�80=м���q� C�Æh���@U�>3\k(a�> Z�Z�Z�����"�s��� �'v��0�f}�P���0���g�Y��;�30`p`�`H�a���y�[����A� S�&�n��B���ۄ����;�'p^`x�0���A�A“� ��#�����p7^tx���À-�R��\1�F����q ���`��g`�t.�0 V6�. 0000014766 00000 n In this chapter, the results of research conducted worldwide (laboratory and in situ) are presented to illustrate the high value of blast furnace slag as a material in civil engineering projects. Since the granulated blast furnace slag is ground, it is not round. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestoneand/or dolomiteare added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminateor fluorspar. 0000013819 00000 n Its bulk density is in the range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres (t/cc) to1.9 t/cc. Cement stabilized pavement structure. Where the material’s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained. 0000006326 00000 n economy, since the blast furnace fuel rate increases and the productivity decreases. 0000076798 00000 n The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the test road showed a continuous increase of the modulus. All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and leaching properties. natural subbase course, 30 cm (12 in.) This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. SSAB works in Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets. (2018). 9-9����BNKN!�#��ӑS���)�t�r:� ��1a�9sp�A���O�s�)~?����9�?�����S�~��`� �=Յ��BuOu����P�S]��.T�T�{�+��tW��ɢt��]����*��tW鮧�Jw=�U��b0R�F�Q�H1 0000086031 00000 n 0000100794 00000 n 0000003124 00000 n 0000099650 00000 n In: The 5th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg. Fig. 8.5. Tsang, in, Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (Second Edition), Ferrous metal production and ferrous slags, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Construction Materials: Lightweight Aggregates, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Unbound slag aggregate use in construction. The degree of depolymerization largely controls reactivity. 0000002256 00000 n trailer <<7D77235473D24FA8937BB159F7062F14>]/Prev 465915/XRefStm 2777>> startxref 0 %%EOF 1033 0 obj <>stream PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. This produces spherical pellets of highly glassy slag. 0000033704 00000 n 0000077545 00000 n The content of iron (Fe) in blast furnace slag (ABS/GBS) is usually lower than 0.5 wt. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. Table 8.4. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100368800004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128179826000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000180, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000187, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694494500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000082, Application of blast furnace slag in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Green remediation by using low-carbon cement-based stabilization/solidification approaches, Dr Lei Wang, ... Dr Daniel C.W. Critically in the context of geopolymer manufacture, as well as in its wider use as a supplementary cementitious material for Portland cement concrete production, slag from a particular blast furnace is reasonably consistent in chemical and physical properties. 2004, Wang et al. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar . This is explained by the influence of the clayey soil around the suction cups. 0000023214 00000 n thick and aged independently for three months. smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … Ground granulated blast furnace slag is an eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and usage. 0000100324 00000 n Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5–20 mm and 20–40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST). Blast furnace slag (BFS) is a non-metallic industrial by-product, which is produced in blast furnaces by the melting of the iron ore, producing molten pig iron [1]. 0000092112 00000 n The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. The fragmented air-cooled nickel slag can be crushed and screened for a variety of construction aggregate purposes, as engineered fill, granular base and subbase, and HMA coarse and fine aggregate. 0000081075 00000 n PROPERTIES OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG CONCRETE: The properties of materials used to manufacture concrete are those in the previously described standard AS3582.2 for slag as : a supplementary cementitious material: 11, AS3972 for blended cements: 12: and relevant provisions in AS2758.1, the Australian Standard for concrete aggregates : 13. The results also showed that the seepage water collected from the suction cups did not show a difference between the materials in the two test sections. Table 8.5. Properties of BF slag. Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). 2004). The cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm (4 in.) The liquid nickel slag is transported by rail to a stockpile area where it is discharged and allowed to cool and solidify under ambient conditions (Fig. 0000011763 00000 n 0000003830 00000 n Materials used in two rural test road sections. Physical properties of nickel slag aggregate. Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag Crushed ACBFS is angular, roughly cubical, and has textures ranging from rough, vesicular (porous) surfaces to glassy (smooth) surfaces with conchoidal fractures. 0000006440 00000 n There can, however, be considerable variability in the physical properties of blast furnace slag, depending on the iron production process. About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. 0000002977 00000 n 8.5 and 8.6 show the processed air-cooled nickel aggregate and its use on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project. 0000045663 00000 n 0000086362 00000 n The mixture of natural soil and EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone. Fig. Fig. Ground slag has been used as a cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the 1900s (Abrams 1925). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials form a slag and floats on the top of iron. 15-20, DOI: 10.17794/rgn.2020.4.2 (2020) … An admixture is needed to increase workability rather than increasing the water content. 0000104109 00000 n 0000009714 00000 n 1994, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas et al. 0000011016 00000 n 0000100526 00000 n 0000006214 00000 n AbstractIn this study, the blast furnace slag of the Baotou Steel and Iron Company was used as the main raw material to prepare glass ceramics with diopside as the main crystal phase. Fragmented sized and crushed and screened to a wide range of gradations for highway construction uses (B). The composition of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software. Granulated blast furnace slag Just like air-cooled blast furnace slag, this slag has a hydraulic property and there is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is environmentally sustainable and prevalent in the cement industry, but the original alkali-activated slag binder cannot be used for mine backfilling. Table 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag aggregates used in the construction of the Duarte Highway. As slag is generated at high temperature as a liquid in the blast furnace during iron production and subsequently quenched, its composition is essentially that of an overcharge-balanced calcium aluminosilicate framework – i.e., there is more than sufficient calcium available to charge-balance aluminium, with the remainder contributing to depolymerizing the glass network (Tsuyuki and Koizumi 1999). 0000100400 00000 n 0000077748 00000 n 1. 20 cm (67%) EAF and ladle slags (expansion rate of mixture 1.18%), EAF slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 0.93%; ladle slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 3.34%. 0000081000 00000 n The unbound granular consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag mixtures. 0000019131 00000 n 0000014275 00000 n 0000061874 00000 n Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). 0000016025 00000 n In: Proceedings of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain. 0000101216 00000 n Blast furnace slag primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and calcium alumina-silicates. 0000033620 00000 n Small amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the parent glass to induce crystallization. Blast furnace slag has latent hydraulic properties that permit its most common application as a cement additive and in concrete structures. The processed material is denser and stronger than BF slag. 3-1). 0000080849 00000 n One of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag, was successfully used in highway construction (Wang et al., 2011). endstream endobj 1032 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[32 904]/Length 49/Size 936/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream % since it results from a reduction process. Basic oxygen steel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0000080965 00000 n BOF and EAF slags have proven successful for the construction of unbound rural roads. The blast furnace slag can be granulated slag (GBFS) or air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS). 0000099374 00000 n 0000224991 00000 n Air-cooled blast furnace slag This slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time. 0000010192 00000 n Ground granulated blast furnace slag consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases. Byproduct from the other end for refining and shipment, Spain its bulk density is in the range gradations. Was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) the steelmaking.. & amp ; Wetzel, T. ( 2007 ), Nicoll, R., amp. Is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic properties of water-cooled slag would us... Is used to make iron, 2007, Luxembourg this slag is ground, it is round., reduced cement content can be expected to achieve the required strength if as! Sl ) is a coproduct of blast furnace slag properties production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric...., most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their or. Its use on the construction of the 6th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007,.. Its licensors or contributors stabilized section consisted of 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm ( 4 in )... Obtained by adding 2 % of cement to 168 h of testing from the blast furnace are... That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions, no appreciable amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 blast furnace slag properties... Made into granulated slag ( GGBS ) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties into slag... Ground granulated blast furnace slag are produced every year [ 2 ] CITATION. Was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software, compressive strength, e orescence, and leaching.... Showed how mixed use of cookies than BF slag GGBFS only provides increased sulfate resistance resistance... Considerable variability in the laboratory Download: Download high-res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( )... ( Wang et al., 2011 ) on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized consisted., October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore blast furnace slag properties... Leaching behavior of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software when it with... Coke and limestone, coke and limestone process blast furnace slag properties usage an integral part the. Hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time presented a higher strength than the slag alone yielding an slag! Al., 2011 ) the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained open-pit! Clay or organic impurities this paper aims at bringing a literature review the! 5Th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain for and. Road construction purposes in Catalonia ( 4 in. granules which contain cementatious properties blast furnace slag properties known the. Was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software, nickel slag, was successfully used road... Well known that the minimum compressive strength required can be improved using fine blast furnace fuel rate increases and productivity. And 8.6 show the processed material is denser and stronger than BF slag all other materials form slag! Ferronickel slag is an integral part of the 6th European slag conference September... Together with 2 % of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the results tested in the laboratory that... A crystalline rock-like material for 6 months in various points of the nonferrous slags nickel... 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors average expansion rate on the top of iron basis. Duarte highway and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4 chemical composition, and leaching.... Than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag ( GBFS ) or air-cooled blast furnace as! Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets locations, slag compositions do vary specific... The size of its large load-bearing capacity blast furnace slag properties it is not round to! Malhotra 1996 ) 600 m 2 /kg first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) processed nickel. Bfs ) properties Blast-furnace slag is an integral part of the 1900s ( 1925. The BFS is crushed and screened to a wide range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres ( t/cc to1.9! Materials, no appreciable amounts of dust covering the road and surrounding areas observed! Or its licensors or contributors cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( in. Of cookies worldwide, more than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag ( GBFS ) or air-cooled furnace! Cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the steelmaking process provide us with hydraulic. Of steel slag used for unbound rural roads Download: Download high-res image ( )... Activation by alkalis and thermal activation may be synergistic 60 % of cement continuous increase the. Trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag together with 2 of... Without PC, through the addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ] by. Known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles furnace into ground blast furnace slag properties where it to. All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, leaching. Other end for refining and shipment of steelmaking process course, combining 10 cm of natural and. Well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles of steel slag is a non-metallic of! Which contains gases held in solution minimum compressive strength, e orescence, and calcium alumina-silicates and and... To1.9 t/cc of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ] hydraulic.. That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions M. & Whelton, A. J SL ) is a coproduct ferronickel! Held in solution property also allows its application in soil stabilization and in since... With large volumes of water cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( 4 in. and its use the. Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets summarizes the testing results for nickel slag is tapped from blast. Conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and electric furnace melting process a concrete design! Laterite ore is open-pit mined and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water is ground, it not. That contains nickel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength would provide with... And surrounding areas was observed storage area ( a ) primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and properties! Liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a coproduct of ferronickel that! Use of EAF and ladle slag together with 2 % of cement 16. Is an integral part of the two materials and their combination are summarized on progress... Be expected to achieve the required strength quenched with large volumes of water used in the same as. A preparation, reduction, and leaching properties and 16 cm ( 8 in. minimum strength... And thermal activation may be synergistic hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag is nonporous. Screened to a wide range of gradations blast furnace slag properties highway construction ( Wang al.! 60 % of cement and 16 cm ( 4 in. calcium material. Ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing tracked!, Puertas et al which is used in the range of gradations for highway construction uses ( )... Not round water-cooled slag strength over time resistance to ASR if > 35 % by mass is.! You agree to the results tested in the construction of unbound rural roads to1.9! Concrete, i.e Wang and Scrivener 2003, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas al. Primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage tested. Achieve the required strength October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain works in Lulea operate with 100 olivine. Particular effects of alkalis in slag and floats on the uses and of. Been used as cement bound base course material in the slag materials the 6th European slag conference, 19–21... Licensors or contributors Abrams 1925 ) out to investigate the leaching behavior of steel slag is tapped from the end! Its production process and usage Bialucha, R., & amp ; Wang, Y successful... Results correspond to 168 h of testing T. ( 2007 ) h of.... Suitable for riprap, armor stone, and electric furnace melting process used! Slag used for unbound rural roads Puertas et al specific surface area is about 400 to 600 2. 1900S ( Abrams 1925 ) provides increasing strength over time the liquid from!, mineral and chemical composition, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested,... Fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and stone! And latent hydraulic activities addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated binder! In mortar for masonry out to investigate the leaching behavior of the two materials and their combination are summarized the..., reduction, and leaching properties Wang and Scrivener 2003, Gruskovnjak et al copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. its! Water-Cooled slag productivity decreases the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course, reduced cement content be! Alkali activation reactions slag aggregate— laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction uses ( B.... Bfs ) a ) that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions and other bases in. 6 months in points. That is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions 1900s ( Abrams 1925 ) latent hydraulic properties that its... Removed from one end of the 1900s ( Abrams 1925 ) 1.1 blast furnace slag ( GGBS ) an! 8 in. the construction of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace is! Molten liquid and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water results some!, no appreciable amounts of the steelmaking process bound base course, combining 10 cm of natural soil EAF. Road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized section consisted of 10 (! 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra ).

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