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electron spin resonance ppt

EPR spectroscopy ... - What Kind of States? CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint. nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr), ATOMIC SPECROSCOPY (AS) - . Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. Hyperfine Interactions • EPR signal is ‘split’ by neighboring nuclei • Called hyperfine interactions • Can be used to provide information • Number and identity of nuclei • Distance from unpaired electron • Interactions with neighboring nuclei E = gmBB0MS + aMsmI a = hyperfine coupling constant mI= nuclear spin quantum number • Measured as the distance between the centers of two signals, Which nuclei will interact? Electron spin Resonance Spectroscopy 2. Spin - spin coupling Now let s look at the absorption due to ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy ESR Spectroscopy Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Also called EPR Spectroscopy Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3c9577-Y2VkZ And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. That's all free as well! ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY MetalOxidationstate Valence orbital occupancy Spin CuI 3d10 spin 0 (diamagnetic) CuII 3d9 spin 1 2 FeI 3d7 spin 3 2 FeII 3d6 spin 2 or 0 FeIII 3d 5spin 2 Table 4.1: Typical metals, oxidation states, and spin properties of metals in proteins and prosthetic groups. - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Prof. Yonghai Chai School of Chemistry & Materials Science For Bilingual Chemistry Education 13C-NMR Spectroscopy The ... Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) Spectroscopy Part 1. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) = Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy Same underlying physical principles as in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) One unpaired (free) electron: Zeeman effect: ∆= = ℎ (resonance condition) g: g factor for free electron: g e = 2.0023 b e: Bohr magneton topics to be covered. EPR Theory. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? To Provide A Classical Analog PPT. Last lecture, we saw that the electron had a magnetic moment, µ orbit = − e 2me Lˆ, due to orbital degrees of freedom. chem 212. introduction to spectroscopy. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Also called EPR Spectroscopy Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Non-destructive technique Applications Oxidation and reduction processes Reaction kinetics, ESR Spectroscopy • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy • Also called EPR Spectroscopy • Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Non-destructive technique • Applications • Oxidation and reduction processes • Reaction kinetics • Examining the active sites of metalloproteins, What compounds can you analyze? Hyperfine Interactions • Coupling patterns same as in NMR • More common to see coupling to nuclei with spins greater than ½ • The number of lines: 2NI + 1 N = number of equivalent nuclei I = spin • Only determines the number of lines--not the intensities, Hyperfine Interactions • Relative intensities determined by the number of interacting nuclei • If only one nucleus interacting • All lines have equal intensity • If multiple nuclei interacting • Distributions derived based upon spin • For spin ½ (most common), intensities follow binomial distribution, Hyperfine Interactions • Example: • VO(acac)2 • Interaction with vanadium nucleus • For vanadium, I = 7/2 • So, 2NI + 1 = 2(1)(7/2) + 1 = 8 • You would expect to see 8 lines of equal intensity, Hyperfine Interactions EPR spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate, Hyperfine Interactions • Example: • Radical anion of benzene [C6H6]- • Electron is delocalized over all six carbon atoms • Exhibits coupling to six equivalent hydrogen atoms • So, 2NI + 1 = 2(6)(1/2) + 1 = 7 • So spectrum should be seven lines with relative intensities 1:6:15:20:15:6:1, Hyperfine Interactions EPR spectrum of benzene radical anion, Hyperfine Interactions • Coupling to several sets of nuclei • First couple to the nearest set of nuclei • Largest a value • Split each of those lines by the coupling to the next closest nuclei • Next largest a value • Continue 2-3 bonds away from location of unpaired electron, Hyperfine Interactions • Example: • Pyrazine anion • Electron delocalized over ring • Exhibits coupling to two equivalent N (I = 1) 2NI + 1 = 2(2)(1) + 1 = 5 • Then couples to four equivalent H (I = ½) 2NI + 1 = 2(4)(1/2) + 1 = 5 • So spectrum should be a quintet with intensities 1:2:3:2:1 and each of those lines should be split into quintets with intensities 1:4:6:4:1, Hyperfine Interactions EPR spectrum of pyrazine radical anion, Conclusions • Analysis of paramagnetic compounds • Compliment to NMR • Examination of proportionality factors • Indicate location of unpaired electron • On transition metal or adjacent ligand • Examination of hyperfine interactions • Provides information on number and type of nuclei coupled to the electrons • Indicates the extent to which the unpaired electrons are delocalized, © 2020 SlideServe | Powered By DigitalOfficePro, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. lecture date: january 30 th , 2008. vibrational and rotational spectroscopy. The two states are labeled by the projection of the electron spin, m s, on the direction of the magnetic field. • Selection rules same as for NMR • Every isotope of every element has a ground state nuclear spin quantum number, I • has value of n/2, n is an integer • Isotopes with even atomic number and even mass number have I = 0, and have no EPR spectra • 12C, 28Si, 56Fe, … • Isotopes with odd atomic number and even mass number have n even • 2H, 10B, 14N, … • Isotopes with odd mass number have n odd • 1H, 13C, 19F, 55Mn, …. Create stunning presentation online in just 3 steps. - Introduction to Atomic Spectroscopy Lecture 10 * * * * * All systems are more stable at lower energy. gerhard k. mallot cern/ph on behalf of the compass collaboration. - What Kind of States? In this review, we discuss the use of ESR spectroscopy to study ROS generation mediated by nanomaterials, which have various applications in biological, chemical, and materials science. The electron spin resonance spectrum of a free radical or coordination complex with one unpaired electron is the simplest of all forms of spectroscopy. EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) is a spectroscopic technique that detects species that have unpaired electrons. presentations for free. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, also referred to as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, is a versatile, nondestructive analytical technique based on the absorption of microwave radiation in presence of an applied field by paramagnetic species. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) - .  introduction to, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy - . - Chapter 13 NMR Spectroscopy NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR is a form of spectroscopy that uses an instrument with a powerful magnet to analyze organic compounds. The intrinsic electron spin imparts an additional contribution, µ spin = γSˆ, where the gyromagnetic ratio, γ = −g e 2m e and g (known as the Land´e g-factor) is very close to 2. Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Which of the following molecules best fits the ... - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy A proton NMR spectrum. spin resonance (ESR) will be discussed. Since the magnetic field interacts with the spin, the spin of the system has to be nonzero. Rotational and Vibrational Spectroscopy - . infrared spectroscopy is widely used in both, Introduction to Electron Microscopy - . Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Also called EPR Spectroscopy Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Non-destructive technique Applications Oxidation and reduction processes Reaction kinetics Slideshow 6640587 by dexter-short Resulting energy levels of an electron in a magnetic field Ebsworth, E. A. V.; Rankin, David W. H.; Cradock, Stephen Structural Methods in Inorganic Chemistry; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1987. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is also known as Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) It is absorption spectroscopy similar to NMR, possible only with molecules having unpaired electrons Instead of Radiowaves in NMR, Microwaves is used in ESR 2. (Also known as EPR, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) ESR is a method for observing the behavior (dynamics) of the electrons within a suitable molecule, and for analyzing various phenomena by identifying the electron environment. Electron Spin Has No Classical Equivalent. Introduction Electron spin resonance (ESR)1 has developed over the past several decades as a technique to provide information on the electronic structure of organic, inorganic, biological, solid state, and surface molecular species. what is the source and how is it working? the electromagnetic spectrum. - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Dr. Vincent J. Storhaug Relaxation of Mxy During Fourier Transform NMR Responses Due to T1 AND T2 Basics of Fourier ... Chapter 9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry: Tools for Structure Determination, - Chapter 9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry: Tools for Structure Determination. of this reason, the system having . 2 CHAPTER 4. electronic vibrational rotational nuclear spin The two nuclei that are ... Energy Differences Between Nuclear Spin States Some important ... 13. Electron Spin Resonance When the molecules of a solid exhibit paramagnetism as a result of unpaired electron spins, transitions can be induced between spin states by applying a magnetic field and then supplying electromagnetic energy, usually in the microwave range of frequencies. ESR Spectroscopy. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. This is a model experiment for electron spin resonance, for clear demonstration of interaction between the magnetic moment of the electron spin with a superimposed direct or alternating magnetic field. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. an intro d sj spectroscopy x,y,z states charmed, Spin physics at COMPASS: present and future - . R-RESONANCE An excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation. the ir spectrum of a, VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF GLASS STRUCTURE: IR spectroscopy - . ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE. ESR yields meaningful structural information even from ongoing chemical or physical processes, without influencing the process itself. S-SPIN A spin s = 1/2 is an intrinsic property of electrons, characterized by quantum number 1/2. how is, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - . Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 13/02/2020 14/04/2020 Chemistry ABC 0 Comments electron spin resonance, esr, resonance, spectroscopy After Very Hardworking by contacting Toppers of Gate we have got E S R Spectroscopy Handwritten Notes Pdf. Hyperfine Interactions Interaction with a single nucleus of spin ½ Ebsworth, E. A. V.; Rankin, David W. H.; Cradock, Stephen Structural Methods in Inorganic Chemistry; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1987. It is the ideal technique to complement other analytical methods in a wide range of application areas. After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. EPR = ESR E Electron –study of unpaired electron spins, and their interaction with their environment. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. SPECTROSCOPY E- ELECTRON. nonzero. Electron spin resonance has been one of the major ways to evaluate various quantum-mechanical approximations for the determination of molecular wave functions. When any species that contains unpaired electron(s) is subjected to a static Because of this reason, the system having free electrons or unpaired electrons is required for this spectroscopic study. Even in the flame, most of the atoms will be in their lowest ... - ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE * Definition It is also called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron magnetic resonance (EMR). Many of them are also animated. 1.2 Electron Spin Resonance Quantum dots make a exciting candidate for the future creation of a quantum com-puter. Core loss spectra (EELS, XAS) - . Biological Applications of Raman Spectroscopy ... - EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) By Jonathan Spagnola. - Magnetic Resonance: Lecture 9: 8) High Resolution NMR of Simple Organic Liquids 8.3 Scalar-Spin-Spin Coupling 8.4 1H NMR Spectroscopy 8.5 Effect of isotopic ... | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy. What causes the energy levels? Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy by arju 1. required for . - CHAPTER 9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy NMR: Based on absorption of Radio waves of certain nuclei in strong Magnetic Field Origin: Some atoms nuclei ... EECS 598 Week 13 Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy, - EECS 598 Week 13 Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy Paul Lee Wayne Fung George Ioannou Smitesh Bakrania, Application Techniques of Electron Spin Resonance, - DIVISION OF INTRAMURAL RESEARCH Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry Application Techniques of Electron Spin Resonance Ronald P. Mason and JinJie Jiang, Principles of Molecular Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic Radiation and Molecular structure. Two Energy States The magnetic fields of the spinning nuclei will align either with the external field, or against the field. Experiment #2B: Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy I. A surprisingly large number of materials have unpaired electrons. Introduction The vast majority of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic investigations make use of - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy. PPT – Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3c9577-Y2VkZ, The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.The basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but it is electron spins that are excited instead of the spins of atomic nuclei.EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes or organic radicals. This is because in a magnetic field they can form a very simple, easily manip-ulated two state system consisting of a spin-down excited state and a spin-up ground state. 1 Chem 325 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (a.k.a. fundamental concepts in electron microscopy the construction of transmission and, Mass Spectrometry Part 1 - . The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy" is the property of its rightful owner. Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy - . the moment of the electron is aligned with the magnetic field and a stage of highest energy when ̅ is aligned against the magnetic field. kevin jorissen university of washington (usa) wien2k 2013 penn state. a.) These local magnetic effects are due to: electrons electrons other nuclei ... - 13. Electron e- J.J. Thomson's Experiments leading to the "Discovery of the Electron" in 1897: The mass of an electron is 9.10938 x 10-31 kg. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Spectra When phase-sensitive detection is used, the signal is the first derivative of the absorption intensity, Describing the energy levels • Based upon the spin of an electron and its associated magnetic moment • For a molecule with one unpaired electron • In the presence of a magnetic field, the two electron spin energy levels are: E = gmBB0MS g = proportionality factor mB = Bohr magneton MS = electron spin B0 = Magnetic field quantum number (+½ or -½), Proportionality Factor • Measured from the center of the signal • For a free electron • 2.00232 • For organic radicals • Typically close to free- electron value • 1.99-2.01 • For transition metal compounds • Large variations due to spin-orbit coupling and zero-field splitting • 1.4-3.0. Because . a recap of particles an intro d sj spectroscopy x,y,z states charmed baryons measurement, NMR Spectroscopy - . These include organic free radicals,2 biradicals, If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 1. - Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6th edition The Use of NMR Spectroscopy Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful ... - 13. ESR Spectroscopy. - Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) Spectroscopy Part 1 Lecture Supplement: Take one handout from the table 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Background and Theory ... Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. - Principles of Molecular Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic Radiation and Molecular structure Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) DE = hn Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed ... - (NMR) The signal due to the CH2Br protons is divided into two peaks:- A doublet of peaks of equal size. Electron Spin Resonance David J. Lurie, PhD Bio-Medical Physics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK 1. ir deals with the interaction of infrared radiation with matter. optical microscopy -, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy - . Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy - . New States in Charm Spectroscopy from Babar and Belle: a review - . Introduction Electrons have intrinsic spin angular momentum that is …  importance of elemental analysis . S Spin – Electron spin is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. Dec 20, 2020 - Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy - PPT, Engineering, Semester Biotechnology Engineering (BT) Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Biotechnology Engineering (BT). introduction to uv-vis spectroscopy measurement of uv-vis spectroscopy -----. It is represented by m s, one of the 4 quantum numbers: n, l, m, m s ms can have one of only 2 values, + ½ and – ½ Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a direct and reliable method to identify and quantify free radicals in both chemical and biological environments. Presentation Summary : Electron spin has no classical equivalent. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)" is the property of its rightful owner. PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. brief discussion of principle, instrumentation and applications lecture supplement: take one handout from the stage. - ... spinning protons act like bar magnets. Here, the electron Spin resonance spectroscopy (EPR) or sometimes known as electron spin resonance (ESR) will be discussed. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a technique for studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons, such as organic and inorganic free radicals or inorganic complexes possessing a transition metal ion. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROCOPY.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. • Net spin S = 0 • Some chemical species have UNPAIRED electrons • Atoms H, Na, transition metals • Recall Stern-Gerlach experiment (s = ±±±± ½) • Molecules: O 2, NO CHAPTER 3 ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 1Sergei A. Dikanov and 2Antony R. Crofts 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine and 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana IL 61801, USA 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is devoted to magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the basic theory 1. properties of nucleus spin of nucleus nuclear spin. electronic vibrational rotational nuclear spin Introduction to 1H NMR Spectroscopy The nuclei that are most useful to organic chemists are: ... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Examining the active sites of metalloproteins, Applicable for species with one or more unpaired, Useful for unstable paramagnetic compounds, ESR measures the transition between the electron, Transition induced by the appropriate frequency, Required frequency of radiation dependent upon, Resulting energy levels of an electron in a, When phase-sensitive detection is used, the, Based upon the spin of an electron and its, For a molecule with one unpaired electron, In the presence of a magnetic field, the two, g proportionality factor mB Bohr magneton, Large variations due to spin-orbit coupling and, EPR signal is split by neighboring nuclei, Measured as the distance between the centers of, Every isotope of every element has a ground state, Isotopes with even atomic number and even mass, Isotopes with odd atomic number and even mass, Interaction with a single nucleus of spin ½, More common to see coupling to nuclei with spins, Only determines the number of lines--not the, Relative intensities determined by the number of, For spin ½ (most common), intensities follow, Electron is delocalized over all six carbon atoms, Exhibits coupling to six equivalent hydrogen, So spectrum should be seven lines with relative, First couple to the nearest set of nuclei, Split each of those lines by the coupling to the, Continue 2-3 bonds away from location of unpaired, Exhibits coupling to two equivalent N (I 1), So spectrum should be a quintet with intensities, Provides information on number and type of nuclei, Indicates the extent to which the unpaired. Chapter 4 Other Techniques: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis - . Electron Paramagnetic Resonance also known as Electron Spin Resonance is a spectroscopic technique which detect species that have unpaired electrons. atomic absorption spectroscopy flame atomic emission spectroscopy icp atomic emission, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - . center for microanalysis of materials frederick seitz materials research, Chapter 14 NMR Spectroscopy - . This document is highly rated by Biotechnology Engineering (BT) … electron Spin resonance spectroscopy (EPR) or sometimes known as electron. 1. concepts. Electron Spin Resonance, ESR, is a powerful non-destructive and non-intrusive analytical method. A surprisingly large number of materials have unpaired electrons. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) • Electrons: spinning, charged particles • ‘stable’ atoms, molecules: all e-are spin-paired. 27.10: Electron-Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy of Organic Radicals Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 22392; Contributors and Attributions; An important method of studying radicals is electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy.The principles of this form of spectroscopy are much the same as of NMR spectroscopy, but the language used by the practitioners of these two forms of … Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy. Since electron spin resonance is an excellent analytical method for paramagnetic species and free radicals, it can be used to obtain a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic data. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. free electrons or unpaired . Because the electron is a spin ½ particle, the parallel state is designated as m s introduction : nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) measures the absorption of. Electrons have two spin ... EPR is only used on paramagnetic species. theory and applications. These include free radicals, … infrared. this spectroscopic study. organic chemistry 6 th edition paula yurkanis bruice. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. The degeneracy of the electron spin states characterized by the quantum number, mS = ±1/2, is lifted by the application of a magnetic field and transitions between the spin levels are ESR is an acronym for Electron Spin Resonance. Get powerful tools for managing your contents. Since the magnetic field interacts with the spin, the spin of the system has to be . Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy or It’s fun to flip electrons! - Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy applied to species having one or more unpaired electrons : free radicals, biradicals, other triplet states, transition ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. electrons is . enrico, Trend in Charm Spectroscopy - . determine structure of unknown. spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of matter with, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) - . • Applicable for species with one or more unpaired electrons • Free radicals • Transition metal compounds • Useful for unstable paramagnetic compounds generated in situ • Electrochemical oxidation or reduction, Energy Transitions • ESR measures the transition between the electron spin energy levels • Transition induced by the appropriate frequency radiation • Required frequency of radiation dependent upon strength of magnetic field • Common field strength 0.34 and 1.24 T • 9.5 and 35 GHz • Microwave region.

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