100 °C. The carbon atoms are represented by a corner that is bonded to other atoms. [39], The cyclic nature of benzene was finally confirmed by the crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale in 1929. The structure is made up of seven carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. In 1855, Hofmann used the word "aromatic" to designate this family relationship, after a characteristic property of many of its members. Benzene is classified as a carcinogen, which increases the risk of cancer and other illnesses, and is also a notorious cause of bone marrow failure. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. CYP2E1 is involved at multiple steps: converting benzene to oxepin (benzene oxide), phenol to hydroquinone, and hydroquinone to both benzenetriol and catechol. This reaction is practiced on a large scale industrially. Via the reaction the diazonium compound with hypophosphorus acid aniline gives benzene. Trimerization of acetylene gives benzene. (August 2007). Cyclohexane consumes around 10% of the world's benzene production; it is primarily used in the manufacture of nylon fibers, which are processed into textiles and engineering plastics. Benzene is insoluble in water because water is not a hydrocarbon. To provide a mechanism for the conversion process, Kekulé proposed that the valency of an atom is determined by the frequency with which it collided with its neighbors in a molecule. Thus, a double bond would exist with one neighbor during the first interval and with the other neighbor during the next interval. Select a subject to preview related courses: What exactly makes ethylbenzene, cumene and cyclohexane so important that most benzene is used to make them? GSH mutations or deletions result in loss of function and result in decreased detoxification. [93], Inhaled benzene is primarily expelled unchanged through exhalation. "Zur Kenntnis der ungesättigen Verbindungen,", "Crocker, Not Armit and Robinson, Begat the Six Aromatic Electrons", "Sur la constitution des substances aromatiques", "Untersuchungen über aromatische Verbindungen (Investigations of aromatic compounds)", "The Structure of the Benzene Ring in Hexamethylbenzene", "An X-Ray Analysis of the Structure of Hexachlorobenzene, Using the Fourier Method", "Faits pour servir à la détermination du lieu chimique dans la série aromatique", "Untersuchungen über die Constitution der zweifach-substituirten Benzole", "Unicode Character 'BENZENE RING' (U+232C)", "Unicode Character 'BENZENE RING WITH CIRCLE' (U+23E3)", "Heterocyclic Chemistry: Heterocyclic Compounds", "Market Study: Benzene (2nd edition), Ceresana, August 2014", "Market Study: Toluene, Ceresana, January 2015", "Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources", "Traffic-related air pollution and the onset of myocardial infarction: disclosing benzene as a trigger? [46], Trace amounts of benzene are found in petroleum and coal. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Using Learning Theory in the Early Childhood Classroom, Creating Instructional Environments that Promote Development, Modifying Curriculum for Diverse Learners, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. [91] About 50% of the entire nationwide (United States) exposure to benzene results from smoking tobacco or from exposure to tobacco smoke. Benzene contains a six-membered ring of carbon atoms, but it is flat rather than puckered. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. [12], Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Benzene is used as a gasoline additive because it is soluble in gasoline. In bacteria, dioxygenase enzyme can add an oxygen to the ring, and the unstable product is immediately reduced (by NADH) to a cyclic diol with two double bonds, breaking the aromaticity. Molecular Formula. Ronald received his PhD. Charles Mansfield filed for (November 11, 1847) and received (May 1848) a patent (no. A higher octane rating is better because this means that the gasoline can take more compression before the gasoline can ignite. Benzene. [94], Under specific conditions and in the presence of other chemicals benzoic acid (a preservative) and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) may interact to produce benzene. The structure is made up of eight carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. from Brown University in Providence RI. Hydroquinone, benzenetriol and catechol are converted to polyphenols. Important examples include the sandwich and half-sandwich complexes, respectively, Cr(C6H6)2 and [RuCl2(C6H6)]2. - Structure, Uses & Formula, Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Definition, Examples & Uses, What is Naphthalene? The current ACGIH biological exposure limits for occupational exposure are 500 μg/g creatinine for muconic acid and 25 μg/g creatinine for phenylmercapturic acid in an end-of-shift urine specimen.[82][83][84][85]. [80] In September 1995, NIOSH issued a new policy for developing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for substances, including carcinogens. Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. Popular Uses of Benzene. ii.The product that can be formed in the fewest steps. [36] Some historians have suggested that the parody was a lampoon of the snake anecdote, possibly already well known through oral transmission even if it had not yet appeared in print. Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages bone marrow and the central nervous system. Because the structure of the compound is composed of only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Some 20% of the benzene production is used to manufacture cumene, which is needed to produce phenol and acetone for resins and adhesives. Benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-Formula: C 9 H 12; Molecular weight: 120.1916; IUPAC Standard InChI: ... CAS Registry Number: 620-14-4; Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD file The 3d structure may be viewed using Java or Javascript. - Uses, Structure & Formula, Introduction to Organic Chemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Enzymes and Metabolism for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, The Transcription and Translation Process for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Processes and Steps of DNA Replication for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetic Variation, Control & Reproduction, Developmental Mechanisms for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Mendelian Concepts for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetic Variability & Mutation for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Analytic Methods in Genetics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Evolution & Natural Selection for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Development of Vertebrates for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Kinetics and Equilibrium for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Eukaryotes for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Virus Structure & Life Cycle for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Cell Biology & Cell Cycle for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Nerve, Muscle & Specialized Cell Types for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Hormones & Mechanisms of Hormone Action for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Structure, Function & Sensory Reception in the Nervous System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Circulatory System Overview for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Lymphatic System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Immune System - Innate and Adaptive Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Digestive System Functions & Organs for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Urinary System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Muscle and Skeletal Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Respiratory System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Skin System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Reproductive Sequence for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Translational Motion for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Force, Motion & Gravitation for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Equilibrium and Momentum for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Work and Energy for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electrostatics & Magnetism for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electronic Circuit Elements for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electrochemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Light & Geometrical Optics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Atomic Nucleus for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electronic Structure for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, The Periodic Table for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Stoichiometric Calculations for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Acids and Bases Overview for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Solution Chemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Chemical Bonding for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Phase Equilibria for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Basic Molecular Biology Lab Techniques for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetics, Evolution & Environmental Influences on Behavior, Principles of Motor Development, Learning & Control, Families, Religions & Schools as Social Institutions, Culture, Socialization & Social Interaction, Principles & Procedures in Scientific Research, Analyzing Scientific Data for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Verbal Reasoning for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Introduction to Natural Sciences: Certificate Program, Introduction to Environmental Science: Help and Review, Principles of Health: Certificate Program, DSST Health & Human Development: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Genetics: Certificate Program, DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, UExcel Science of Nutrition: Study Guide & Test Prep, Weather and Climate Science: Certificate Program, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Tutoring Solution, Tartarus of Greek Mythology: Definition & Explanation, The Ancient Roman Calendar: History, Months & Saints, The Bacchae by Euripides: Summary, Themes & Analysis, The Greek Goddess Artemis: Mythology & Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Structure of Kinetochore, Quiz & Worksheet - Nondisjunction in Meiosis, Human Effects on the Environment: Help and Review, Laboratory Techniques for Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering: Help and Review, Analyzing Scientific Data in Biology: Help and Review, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. 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benzene structural formula

It contains eight hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane (C 6 H 14). All these chemicals - ethylbenzene, cumene and cyclohexane, are needed to manufacture products in various industrial processes. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. A reaction under kinetic (or rate) control will yield predominantly: i.The most stable product. 300-57-2. In 1903, Ludwig Roselius popularized the use of benzene to decaffeinate coffee. The most common reactions of benzene involve substitution of a proton by other groups. C11H16. Prior to the 1920s, benzene was frequently used as an industrial solvent, especially for degreasing metal. Because of its chemical formula, C6H6, benzene is classified as a hydrocarbon, which is a compound that consists of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Benzene is a liquid that is colorless and flammable, with a sweet and gasoline-like odor. It occurs when fuel is improperly ignited, and it can damage the engine components. Pure benzene, for example, oxidizes in the body to produce an epoxide, benzene oxide, which is not excreted readily and can interact with DNA to produce harmful mutations. The EPA requires that spills or accidental releases into the environment of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) or more of benzene be reported. This reaction is achieved by the use of high pressures of hydrogen in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts, such as finely divided nickel. The double bonds within this structure are mainly separated by a single bond, hen… Myeloperoxidase mutations result in loss of function and may result in decreased generation of toxic metabolites. [77] These legal limits were based on studies demonstrating compelling evidence of health risk to workers exposed to benzene. succeed. The most important variations contain nitrogen. Benzene is used as an additive in gasoline to increase octane rating and reduce knocking. The aromatic compounds. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) adopted Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for benzene at 0.5 ppm TWA and 2.5 ppm STEL. Structure. X-ray diffraction shows that all six carbon-carbon bonds in benzene are of the same length, at 140 picometres (pm). Glutathione seems to play an important role by protecting against benzene-induced DNA breaks and it is being identified as a new biomarker for exposure and effect. In similar fashion to this catalytic reforming, UOP and BP commercialized a method from LPG (mainly propane and butane) to aromatics. NQ01 metabolizes benzoquinone toward polyphenols (counteracting the effect of MPO). After exposure to 63 to 405 mg/m3 of benzene for 1 to 5 hours, 51 to 87% was excreted in the urine as phenol over a period of 23 to 50 hours. The molecule is planar. Sulfonation of benzene involves the use of oleum, a mixture of sulfuric acid with sulfur trioxide. Which of the following compounds has the chemical formula C10 H8 ? This was 7 years after he had solved the problem of how carbon atoms could bond to up to four other atoms at the same time. Cumene on the other hand is needed to produce phenol, which is for resins and adhesives. [67] There is no safe exposure level; even tiny amounts can cause harm. Sulfuric acid catalyzes the nitration of benzene. What is the expected solubility of benzene in each of the compounds shown below? [21][22] Gradually, the sense developed among chemists that a number of substances were chemically related to benzene, comprising a diverse chemical family. This is often called "on-purpose" methodology to produce benzene, compared to conventional BTX (benzene-toluene-xylene) extraction processes. However, because it was later known that benzene is carcinogenic and toxic, other chemicals that are less toxic and carcinogenic replaced benzene. More than half of the entire benzene production is processed into ethylbenzene, a precursor to styrene, which is used to make polymers and plastics like polystyrene and EPS. Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. In 1865, the German chemist Friedrich August Kekulé published a paper in French (for he was then teaching in Francophone Belgium) suggesting that the structure contained a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds. The following structures all have DoB of 4 and have the same molecular formula as benzene. The structure with three double bonds was proposed by Kekule as an attempt to explain how a molecule whose molecular formula was C 6 H 6 could be built out of carbons which make four bonds. Visit the MCAT Prep: Tutoring Solution page to learn more. [18] In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named the substance "phène";[19] this word has become the root of the English word "phenol", which is hydroxylated benzene, and "phenyl", the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom (free radical H•) from benzene. The short term exposure limit for airborne benzene is 5 ppm for 15 minutes. The first compound has the chemical formula C10 H8 . This discovery led to the production of Sanka. iii. Breathing in high doses of benzene can affect the nervous system, which can lead to drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, tremors, confusion, and/or unconsciousness. The solvent-properties of the two are similar, but toluene is less toxic and has a wider liquid range. Further loss of hydrogen gives "fused" aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons That portion is referred to as a functional group. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, which is a chemical compound consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms with alternating double bonds forming a ring. We can write a structure with alternate single and double bonds, either as a full structural formula or as a line-angle formula: Moving on, Benzene has a lot of uses in different fields. Use cured arrows to show the m[{Image src='img128983746051888078462.jpg' alt='' caption=''}]echanism of the step below If more than one resonance form of the product is possible, show I be formed, sho. ), pp. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Benzene can be categorized as an aromatic hydrocarbon. To accurately reflect the nature of the bonding, benzene is often depicted with a circle inside a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms. And what exactly is engine knocking, and why do we want to reduce it? Draw the structures of the product and the two intermediates, and Identify the reagents in eac. You can test out of the The intermolecular forces in water are very different from the intermolecular forces in benzene. Synonyms. While it is a useful chemical substance, we must remember it is a toxic chemical, and continuous exposure to it can have cancerous effects. It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. How could salicylic acid be synthesized from benzene? The affected batches were removed from sale. [57], Toluene is now often used as a substitute for benzene, for instance as a fuel additive. In 2005, the water supply to the city of Harbin in China with a population of almost nine million people, was cut off because of a major benzene exposure. Under these conditions, toluene undergoes dealkylation to benzene and methane: This irreversible reaction is accompanied by an equilibrium side reaction that produces In 1872, Kekulé suggested that benzene had two complementary structures and that these forms rapidly interconverted, so that if there were a double bond between any pair of carbon atoms at one instant, that double bond would become a single bond at the next instant (and vice versa). credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Benzene is used in the manufacture of chemicals used in industrial processes that create resins, adhesives and plastics. Thiele, Johannes (1899) "Zur Kenntnis der ungesättigten Verbindungen" (On our knowledge of unsaturated compounds). Why? The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration for benzene to 500 ppm. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Cyclohexane is used to produce nylon. Benzene Hexachloride Structural Formula (image will be uploaded soon) Lindane consists of six atoms of each carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine. Replacement of a second CH bond with N gives, depending on the location of the second N, pyridazine, pyrimidine, or pyrazine. Log in here for access. [81] The NIOSH short-term exposure limit (STEL – 15 min) is 1 ppm. C6H6Cl6 is the chemical formula of lindane. Q3) No, a substance that is fragrant does not imply a benzene ring is in its structure. The illustration on the left (1), shows all the carbon and hydrogen atoms and how they are bonded together. It's involved in various industrial processes to manufacture products we use on a daily basis, like plastics, dyes and glues, to mention a few. Benzene production is currently expanding in the Middle East and in Africa, whereas production capacities in Western Europe and North America are stagnating. The octane rating in gasoline tells us the amount of compression gasoline can take before it ignites. [59] European petrol specifications now contain the same 1% limit on benzene content. For commercial use, until World War II, most benzene was obtained as a by-product of coke production (or "coke-oven light oil") for the steel industry. Although benzene and pyridine are structurally related, benzene cannot be converted into pyridine. Why? courses that prepare you to earn The Structural Formula Of Benzene Is Often Represented As A Select One: A. Cycloalkyne B. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Benzene is a It is highly toxic and is a known carcinogen; exposure to … It's also a component of gasoline. Find Similar Structures. Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry. The ring and the three double bonds fit the molecular formula, but the structure doesn't explain the chemical behavior of benzene at all well. Here Kekulé spoke of the creation of the theory. (VIII. Whereas alkenes can be hydrogenated near room temperatures, benzene and related compounds are more reluctant substrates, requiring temperatures >100 °C. The carbon atoms are represented by a corner that is bonded to other atoms. [39], The cyclic nature of benzene was finally confirmed by the crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale in 1929. The structure is made up of seven carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. In 1855, Hofmann used the word "aromatic" to designate this family relationship, after a characteristic property of many of its members. Benzene is classified as a carcinogen, which increases the risk of cancer and other illnesses, and is also a notorious cause of bone marrow failure. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. CYP2E1 is involved at multiple steps: converting benzene to oxepin (benzene oxide), phenol to hydroquinone, and hydroquinone to both benzenetriol and catechol. This reaction is practiced on a large scale industrially. Via the reaction the diazonium compound with hypophosphorus acid aniline gives benzene. Trimerization of acetylene gives benzene. (August 2007). Cyclohexane consumes around 10% of the world's benzene production; it is primarily used in the manufacture of nylon fibers, which are processed into textiles and engineering plastics. Benzene is insoluble in water because water is not a hydrocarbon. To provide a mechanism for the conversion process, Kekulé proposed that the valency of an atom is determined by the frequency with which it collided with its neighbors in a molecule. Thus, a double bond would exist with one neighbor during the first interval and with the other neighbor during the next interval. Select a subject to preview related courses: What exactly makes ethylbenzene, cumene and cyclohexane so important that most benzene is used to make them? GSH mutations or deletions result in loss of function and result in decreased detoxification. [93], Inhaled benzene is primarily expelled unchanged through exhalation. "Zur Kenntnis der ungesättigen Verbindungen,", "Crocker, Not Armit and Robinson, Begat the Six Aromatic Electrons", "Sur la constitution des substances aromatiques", "Untersuchungen über aromatische Verbindungen (Investigations of aromatic compounds)", "The Structure of the Benzene Ring in Hexamethylbenzene", "An X-Ray Analysis of the Structure of Hexachlorobenzene, Using the Fourier Method", "Faits pour servir à la détermination du lieu chimique dans la série aromatique", "Untersuchungen über die Constitution der zweifach-substituirten Benzole", "Unicode Character 'BENZENE RING' (U+232C)", "Unicode Character 'BENZENE RING WITH CIRCLE' (U+23E3)", "Heterocyclic Chemistry: Heterocyclic Compounds", "Market Study: Benzene (2nd edition), Ceresana, August 2014", "Market Study: Toluene, Ceresana, January 2015", "Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources", "Traffic-related air pollution and the onset of myocardial infarction: disclosing benzene as a trigger? [46], Trace amounts of benzene are found in petroleum and coal. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Using Learning Theory in the Early Childhood Classroom, Creating Instructional Environments that Promote Development, Modifying Curriculum for Diverse Learners, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. [91] About 50% of the entire nationwide (United States) exposure to benzene results from smoking tobacco or from exposure to tobacco smoke. Benzene contains a six-membered ring of carbon atoms, but it is flat rather than puckered. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. [12], Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Benzene is used as a gasoline additive because it is soluble in gasoline. In bacteria, dioxygenase enzyme can add an oxygen to the ring, and the unstable product is immediately reduced (by NADH) to a cyclic diol with two double bonds, breaking the aromaticity. Molecular Formula. Ronald received his PhD. Charles Mansfield filed for (November 11, 1847) and received (May 1848) a patent (no. A higher octane rating is better because this means that the gasoline can take more compression before the gasoline can ignite. Benzene. [94], Under specific conditions and in the presence of other chemicals benzoic acid (a preservative) and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) may interact to produce benzene. The structure is made up of eight carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. from Brown University in Providence RI. Hydroquinone, benzenetriol and catechol are converted to polyphenols. Important examples include the sandwich and half-sandwich complexes, respectively, Cr(C6H6)2 and [RuCl2(C6H6)]2. - Structure, Uses & Formula, Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Definition, Examples & Uses, What is Naphthalene? The current ACGIH biological exposure limits for occupational exposure are 500 μg/g creatinine for muconic acid and 25 μg/g creatinine for phenylmercapturic acid in an end-of-shift urine specimen.[82][83][84][85]. [80] In September 1995, NIOSH issued a new policy for developing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for substances, including carcinogens. Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. Popular Uses of Benzene. ii.The product that can be formed in the fewest steps. [36] Some historians have suggested that the parody was a lampoon of the snake anecdote, possibly already well known through oral transmission even if it had not yet appeared in print. Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages bone marrow and the central nervous system. Because the structure of the compound is composed of only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Some 20% of the benzene production is used to manufacture cumene, which is needed to produce phenol and acetone for resins and adhesives. Benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-Formula: C 9 H 12; Molecular weight: 120.1916; IUPAC Standard InChI: ... CAS Registry Number: 620-14-4; Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD file The 3d structure may be viewed using Java or Javascript. - Uses, Structure & Formula, Introduction to Organic Chemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Enzymes and Metabolism for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, The Transcription and Translation Process for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Processes and Steps of DNA Replication for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetic Variation, Control & Reproduction, Developmental Mechanisms for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Mendelian Concepts for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetic Variability & Mutation for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Analytic Methods in Genetics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Evolution & Natural Selection for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Development of Vertebrates for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Kinetics and Equilibrium for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Eukaryotes for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Virus Structure & Life Cycle for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Cell Biology & Cell Cycle for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Nerve, Muscle & Specialized Cell Types for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Hormones & Mechanisms of Hormone Action for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Structure, Function & Sensory Reception in the Nervous System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Circulatory System Overview for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Lymphatic System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Immune System - Innate and Adaptive Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Digestive System Functions & Organs for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Urinary System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Muscle and Skeletal Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Respiratory System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Skin System for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Reproductive Sequence for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Translational Motion for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Force, Motion & Gravitation for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Equilibrium and Momentum for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Work and Energy for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electrostatics & Magnetism for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electronic Circuit Elements for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electrochemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Light & Geometrical Optics for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Atomic Nucleus for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Electronic Structure for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, The Periodic Table for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Stoichiometric Calculations for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Acids and Bases Overview for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Solution Chemistry for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Chemical Bonding for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Phase Equilibria for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Basic Molecular Biology Lab Techniques for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Genetics, Evolution & Environmental Influences on Behavior, Principles of Motor Development, Learning & Control, Families, Religions & Schools as Social Institutions, Culture, Socialization & Social Interaction, Principles & Procedures in Scientific Research, Analyzing Scientific Data for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Verbal Reasoning for the MCAT: Tutoring Solution, Introduction to Natural Sciences: Certificate Program, Introduction to Environmental Science: Help and Review, Principles of Health: Certificate Program, DSST Health & Human Development: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Genetics: Certificate Program, DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, UExcel Science of Nutrition: Study Guide & Test Prep, Weather and Climate Science: Certificate Program, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Tutoring Solution, Tartarus of Greek Mythology: Definition & Explanation, The Ancient Roman Calendar: History, Months & Saints, The Bacchae by Euripides: Summary, Themes & Analysis, The Greek Goddess Artemis: Mythology & Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Structure of Kinetochore, Quiz & Worksheet - Nondisjunction in Meiosis, Human Effects on the Environment: Help and Review, Laboratory Techniques for Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering: Help and Review, Analyzing Scientific Data in Biology: Help and Review, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees.

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