Although the date of the official transfer is still debated among historians, it is almost certain that Ṭahmāsp began preparations to have the royal capital moved from Tabriz to Qazvin during this period of ethnic re-settlement in the 1540s. In 1528, ʿObayd-Allāh managed to re-conquer the cities of Astarābād and Mashad and lay siege to the city of Herat. During his stay in that city, he studied and taught, as one of the jurists of his time, at the holy shrine attached to Ê¿AlÄ«âs tomb. Šaraf-al-Din Bedlisi’s Šaraf-nāma, ed. C. Melville, London, 1996, pp. Wikipedia Museo Poldi Pezzoli; Wikidata. The Italian excavations have revealed five principal construction phases spanning from the III c. BCE into the X-XI c. CE. 301-9. These decisions by Esmāʿil were undoubtedly also influenced by his desire to halt and perhaps reverse the meteoric rise of the Šāmlu tribe which had dominated Safavid court politics and held a number of powerful governorships, including that of Khorasan, since the “emergence” (ẓohur) of Esmāʿil. Between 1540 and 1553, Tahmasp conducted military campaigns in the Caucasus region in both his territories and beyond, capturing many tens of thousands of Armenians, Georgians and Circassians. 81-104, and Andrew Newman, “The Myth of the Clerical Migration to Safavid Iran: Arab Shiite Opposition to ʿAlī al-Karakī and Safawid Shiism,” Die Welt des Islams 33, 1993, pp. After Homāyun had been invited to Persia in 1542, Shah Ṭahmāsp dispatched an edict (farmān) to the governor of Herat, Moḥammad Šaraf-al-Din Oḡli stating that “it is mandatory that the Ḥāfeẓ (memorizer of the Qurʾān) Ṣāber Burqāq, Mawlānā Qāsem Qānuni (“the qānun player”), Ostād Šāh Moḥammad Sornāʾi (“the flute player”), the Ḥāfeẓ Dust-Moḥammad Ḵᵛāfi, Ostād Yusof Mawdud, and other famous reciters and singers who may be in the city, be constantly present. Also worthy of note are the relevant chapters in Andrew Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, London, 2006, as well as Kathryn Babayan’s chapter on Shah Ṭahmāsp, “Mirroring the Safavi Past: Shah Tahmasp’s Break with His Messiah Father,” in her Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran, Cambridge, Mass., 2002, pp.  Upon adulthood, however, Tahmasp was able to reassert the power of the Shah and control the tribesmen with the start of the introduction of large amounts of Caucasian elements, effectively and purposefully creating a new layer in Iranian society, solely composed of ethnic Caucasians. During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. Bayezid II. 143-77, and W. Kleiss, “Der safavidische Pavilion in Qazvin,” AMI 9, 1976, pp. In turn, many of these transplanted women became wives and concubines of Ṭahmāsp, and the Safavid harem emerged as a competitive, and sometimes lethal, arena of ethnic politics as cliques of Turkmen, Circassian, and Georgian women and courtiers vied with each other for the shah’s attention. Christian-Muslim Relations. He had been trained in drawing himself, and had some talent. Die Denkwürdigkeiten Schâh Tahmâsp's des Ersten von Persien (1515-1576), aus dem Originaltext, zum ersten Male übersetzt und mit Erläuterungen versehen von Paul Horn by á¹¬ahmÄsp ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1891 in German and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. In terms of the general political narrative between 1524 and 1576, there are also sections of books and monographs that provide good analyses: See H. R. Roemer, “The Safavid Period,” Camb. This page was last modified on 5 January 2016, at 13:03. See also M. Szuppe, “Palais et jardins: le complexe royal des premiers safavides à Qazvin, milieu XVIᵉ-début XVIIᵉ siècles,” in Sites et monuments disparus d’après les temoignages de voyageurs, ed. in Persian the word of Madjnun is equal to Melancholia and Hebephrenia â¦ ShÄh á¹¬ahmÄsp, Tazkira-i ShÄh á¹¬ahmÄsp (The Autobiography of Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I of Iran [1514â1576]) (Teheran: IntishÄrÄt-i Sharq, 1984); German trans. Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu managed to arrest Ḡiāṯ-al-Din in 1521 and had him executed the following day but he himself was dismissed from his post and recalled to Tabriz by Shah Esmāʿil, who appointed a new tutor (lala), ʿAli Beg Rumlu, known as Div Solṭān for Ṭahmāsp Mirzā, while the princedom of Herat and Khorasan was given to his brother, Sām Mirzā. Not unlike Solaymān’s earlier invasion of ʿErāq-e ʿarab and Baghdad during Sām Mirzā’s bid for the throne, the Ottomans were once again using royal dissent in the Safavid house as a means of establishing a pro-Ottoman satellite state to the east. á¹¬ahmÄsp I (r. 1524-76). Suleiman was eager to negotiate his son's return, but Tahmasp rejected his promises and threats until, in 1561 Suleiman compromised with him.  Gabriel de Luetz was able to give decisive military advice to Suleiman, as when he advised on artillery placement during the Siege of VÄn. Matters came to the point that the wazir Khwajah 'Inayat Allah,19 spurred by jealousy and malice, made a few hostile remarks (khildfi chand) about me, and nawwdb-i aid (Bahram Mirza), flying into a rage, arrested me, and 300 tumans were taken á¹¬AHMÄSP I, second ruler of the Safavid dynasty (b. village of Å Äh-ÄbÄd near Isfahan, 22 February, 1514; d.Qazvin, 14 May, 1576). Nevertheless, one court faction supported Ismail, while another backed Haydar Mirza Safavi, the son of a Georgian. Civil war, however, broke out roughly a year later and Div Solṭān led his forces successfully against the Ostājlu rebels in Azerbaijan, Ardabil, and Gilān. 66-112. A number of studies have been offered on architecture and urban dynamics under Shah Ṭahmāsp. Unfettered by the juridical and exegetical arguments and proofs presented by Shiʿite scholars in the past, Karaki was free to embrace the oṣuli principle of ejtehād (‘interpretation’) in his defense of a secular kingdom acting as the spiritual custodian of the Imami community. The ShÄ«'ahs, as was well known, loved children born in Mut'ah wedlock more than those born by nikÄh wives, contrary to the SunnÄ«s and the Ahl-i JamÄ'at. 250-62. Nonetheless, Ṭahmāsp’s “spiritual repentance” is presented in conventional historiography as a metaphor for Safavid Persia’s transition to Twelver Shiʿite orthodoxy from what Michel Mazzaoui termed “Folk Islam,” or more specifically an ad hoc fusion of rituals and liturgies influenced by a variety of traditions: mainstream Sunnism, Imami Shiʿism, Neẓāri Ismaʿilism, Neoplatonic theosophy, militant ḥorufi millenarianism (see HORUFISM), and Turkmen shamanism. cloisters and lay communities living in Marand, Naḵčavān, Ḵāčin, Ṭātef, and Akules. Introduction. His ambassador to the Shah was the knight of Saint John de Balbi, and an alliance was made with the objective of making an attack on the Ottoman Empire in the west and the east within the following year. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. Hist. ), infant, child, minor ... where he went towards 970/1562-3 during the reign of the á¹¢afawid ruler á¹¬ahmÄsp I (930-84/1524-76). One particularly understudied poet is Ḵᵛāja ʿAbdi Beg of Shiraz (laqab: Navidi), perhaps better known for his historical work, the Takmilat al-aḵbār, but whose poetical collection, Jannat-e ʿAdan (made up of five major poems, in the spirit of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa) deserves more scholarly attention for its allusions to and descriptions of historical events and monuments. The young Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I, the son of IsmÄÊ¿Ä«l, retook Baghdad in 1529 and gave it to Muá¸¥ammad Sultan Khan TakkalÅ«. Persian Miniature of âMadjnun among the beast âthat is a depiction of the legend of Layli and Madjnun ,a Persian romance versified by Nezami of Gandja in 1188.A.D. , In 1574, Tahmasp fell ill and discord broke out among the Qizilbash once more, this time over which prince was to succeed him. The only biographies of Shah Ṭahmāsp by western scholars are: Clement Huart, “Ṭahmāsp I,” EI¹, IV, 1934, p. 615; R. M. Savory, “Ṭahmāsp I,” EI¹, IV, 1998, pp, 108-10, and Browne, Lit. A general overview of 16th century art, architecture, and material culture is available in J. Thompson and S. Canby, eds., Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran, 1501-1576, Milan, 2003. IsmÄÊ¿Ä«lâs successor, á¹¬ahmÄsp I (reigned 1524â76), encouraged carpet weaving on the scale of a state industry. Tahmasp lost patience and ordered a general massacre of the Takkalu tribe. 471 ff.) While Ṭahmāsp could obviate some of his concerns regarding familial revolt by having his brothers and sons routinely transferred around to various governorships in the empire, he realized that any long-lasting solutions would involve minimizing the political and military presence of the Qezelbāš as a whole. This would be the starting point for the corps of ḡolāmān-e ḵāṣṣa-ye-e šarifa, or royal slaves, who would dominate the Safavid military in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The previous conquests were consolidated, and many of the political, economic, and social problems caused by Mehmedâs internal policies were resolved, leaving a firm foundation for the conquests of the 16th-century sultans. 245-91; Memoirs of Shah Tahmasp, ed. They were both influential in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the community. He persuaded Suleiman that if he invaded the Iranians would rise up and overthrow Tahmasp. King and qezelbāš ward (1524-33).Ṭahmāsp’s puppet status continued with his accession to the throne on 23 May 1524, and the self-appointed status of Div Solṭān Rumlu (one of the Sufis of the Old Guard “ṣufiān-e qadimi”) as the shah’s vicegerent and the empire’s de facto ruler. A. H. Morton’s translation of the account of the Venetian agent, Michele Membré (Mission to the Lord Sophy of Persia (1539-1542), tr. In 1559 Bayezid arrived in Iran where Tahmasp gave him a warm welcome. Sām Mirzā himself was an ardent poet, writing 8,000 verses and a Šāh-nāma dedicated to his brother, Ṭahmāsp (see Sām Mirzā, ed. "On the latter point also the discussion got rather lively, and I would refer the reader to my work entitled NajÄtu'r-rashÄ«d [Vide note 2, p. 104], in which the subject is briefly discussed. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. Introduction. Although they defeated the Uzbeks in a battle near Jam, Tahmasp was disgusted at the cowardice Chuha Sultan had displayed during the combat. The shah iran. As Alexander H. Morton has indicated in his study of the Venetian Michel Membré’s travel account, the ritualistic bastinado (čub-e ṭariq) of penitent Qezelbāš amirs by a high-ranking Turkmen Sufi (ḵalifat al-ḵolafā), and other “un-Islamic” ceremonies, continued to be practiced in various Turkmen mystical gatherings with the shah in attendance. The treaty freed Iran from Ottoman attacks for three decades. It should be noted that many of the court chronicles completed during or shortly after the reign of Ṭahmāsp are often in large part recensions of grander, universal histories such as Ḡiāṯ˚-al-Din b. Homām-al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir’s Ḥabib al-siar (ed. Literary aspects of this reign have been studied by Paul Losensky. 109-21, 132-44, and his “Two Decrees of Shāh Ṭahmāsp Concerning Statecraft and the Authority of Shaykh ʿAlī al-Karakī,” in Authority and Political Culture in Shiʿism, ed. Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir’s son, Amir Maḥmud, produced a valuable first-hand account of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s intermittent campaigns against the Uzbeks in Khorasan in Tāriḵ-e Šāh Esmāʿil va Šāh Ṭahmāsp, ed. Zainab Sultan Khanum, widow of his younger brother Shahzada âAbdl Fath Muiz ud-din Bahram Mirza, and sister of Imad ud-din Shirvani. On account of their spirit-enhancing beauty, the thought of life and the next world vanished. POSSIBLY USEFUL Generally because of ottoman country was an empire and also the ottomans sultans had great tolerent towards to non turkish people a lot of race lived under the rule of ottomans. Her name was Sultanum Bekum Mawsillu (Andrew J. Newman, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, "AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature â Encyclopaedia Iranica", "ÙÚ¯Ø§ÙÛ Ø¨Ù Ù ÙØ³ÛÙÛ Ø¯ÙØ±Ù Û ØµÙÙÛÙ (905 - 1135 Ù) ,Ù Ø¬ÙÙ Ú¯ÙØ³ØªØ§Ù ÙÙØ± , Ù¾Ø§ÛÛØ² Ù Ø²Ù Ø³ØªØ§Ù 1384 - Ø´Ù Ø§Ø±Ù 2 , ØµÙØÙ 141 , ØªØµÙÛØ± | Ù¾Ø§ÛÚ¯Ø§Ù Ù Ø¬ÙØ§Øª ØªØ®ØµØµÛ ÙÙØ±", A king's book of kings: the Shah-nameh of Shah Tahmasb, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Tahmasp_I&oldid=759585, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, âAbuâl Muzaffar âAbuâl Fath Sultan Shah Tahmasb bin Shah Ismail al-Safavi al-Husayni al-Musavi, Sultanzada Khanum, daughter of Ali Khan Gorji, a, Zahra Baji, daughter of Prince Ot'ar Shalikashvili of. The two princes quarrelled and eventually Bayezid rebelled against his father. A. Zilli, “Early Correspondence Between Shah Tahmasp and Akbar,” in Islamic Heritage in South Asian Subcontinent, ed. M. Minovi, Tehran, 1964. 563-649; 45, 1891, pp. Marginalized and hostile, a number of Takkalu abandoned the Safavid cause and joined the Ottoman Empire to the west; the most celebrated case was that of Olāma Beg Takkalu who had held the powerful positions of yasāvol-bāši (chief bodyguard) and ešik-āqāsi-bāši (chamberlain) during the reign of Esmāʿil, and at the time of his revolt had been serving as the governor (ḥākem) of Azerbaijan. He was the son and successor of Ismail I. See his Encyclopædia Iranica article on Moḥtašam of Kashan, and “The Palace of Praise and the Melons of Time: Descriptive Patterns in ‘Abdi Bayk Shirazi’s Garden of Eden,” Eurasian Studies: the Skilliter Center-Instituto per l’Oriente Journal for Balkan, Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolian, Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Central Asian Studies 2, 2003, pp. 41-42). A number of other primary sources, namely diplomatic letters (maktubāt), royal decrees (farāmin), and diplomas of investiture have been edited and, in some cases, translated. These episodes of fraternal rivalry and open rebellion in the Safavid household suggest that Shah Ṭahmāsp was now having to come to terms with certain aspects of Turco-Mongolian dynastic practice, specifically its avoidance of strict primogeniture. Abbas the Great or Abbas I of Persia (Persian: Ø´Ø§Ù Ø¹Ø¨Ø§Ø³ Ø¨Ø²Ø±Ú¯ â; 27 January 1571 â 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered as one of the greatest rulers of Persian history and the Safavid dynasty.He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda. 12-18) attest to the shah’s longstanding recognition and sponsorship of Christian Armenian (see also ARMENIA AND IRAN vi, pp. Indeed, the developments during this period support the contention that one particular coterie of sayyeds from Māzandarān and the east were especially influential for the duration of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign. These and other contentious questions suggest that the Safavid doctrine of Imami Shiʿism was somewhat malleable, and stood outside the pale of orthodox Twelver Shiʿism. M.-ʿA. Illustrations from the celebrated Safavid copy of the Haft Awrang have been reproduced by M. S. Simpson in Sultan Ibrahim Mirza’s Haft Awrang: A Princely Manuscript from Sixteenth-Century Iran, New Haven, 1997. For another perspective on Širāzi, see Rasul Jaʿfariān, “Didgāh-hā-ye siāsi-e ʿAbdi Beg Širāzi dar bāra-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp Ṣafavi,” Ṣafaviya dar ʿarṣa-ye din, farhang va siāsat, ed. Fortunately, we have a contemporary text providing a prosopography of these individuals with Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Qomi’s Golestān-e honar (or Taḏkera-ye ḵošnevisān wa naqqāšān), which was translated by Vladimir Minorsky (see Qāzi Aḥmad, tr. He was dignified as “Legal Expert of the Age” (Mojtahed-al-zamān) and “the Second Investigator” (al-Moḥaqqeq al-ṯāni, the first one, al-Moḥaqqeq al-awwal, being Najm-al-Din Ḥelli (d. 1326). M. Bahrām-nežād, Tehran, 2000, and Ḵᵛuršāh b. Qobād Ḥosayni, Tāriḵ-e ilči-ye Neẓāmšāh, ed. Library of Congress Authority File (English) Virtual International Authority File. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, shah of Iran (1941-79). 4 (1949): 46-53. p. 46-53 www.jstor.org The Cleveland Museum of Art. It is in no small part on account of Ṭahmāsp’s patronage of artists, miniaturists, calligraphers, historians, poets, stylists, bookbinders, and other cultural artisans, primarily from Timurid Khorasan, that the Safavid dynasty was able to emerge as an imperial entity of any significance. It was then that artists such as Solṭān Moḥammad Tabrizi, Dust Moḥammad, and Mir Sayyed ʿAli were beginning to enjoy vigorous support from the royal family in Tabriz and Herat; the well-celebrated Šāh-nāma-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp was completed in the mid-1540s, a beautiful copy of Neẓāmi’s ḵamsa, copied and illustrated by the aforementioned artists, Šāh-Maḥmud Nišāpuri, Ostād Mirak Eṣfahāni and Mir Moṣawwer, was commissioned by the shah in 1539 and finished in 1543, while Jāmi’s Haft awrang was finished at the court of Ṭahmāsp’s son, Solṭān Ebrāhim, in the early 1540s. Olāma Beg Takkalu, now serving as the Ottoman governor of Erzurum, was ordered to assemble his troops and accompany Alqāṣ Mirzā in an invasion of Azerbaijan. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of the Qizilbash. Persia, IV, pp. An angry mob gathered and Tahmasp had Bayezid put into custody, alleging it was for his own safety. A hookah (Hindustani: à¤¹à¥à¤à¤¼à¥à¤à¤¼à¤¾ (Urdu), ØÙÙÛ (Nastaleeq) huqqah) also known as a waterpipe or narghile, is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) instrument for smoking in which the smoke is cooled by water. She was born in 1593 and died in 1631, during the birth of her fourteenth child at Burhanpur. That the shah would be committed to building a court that was intimately familiar with urban Persian culture, both literary and artistic, should be of no surprise; his own memoirs, the Tadkera-e Šāh Ṭahmāsp, is littered with quotations from Hafez, Sa’di, and Neẓāmi, as well as a number of Turkish verses. It is generally believed that at a certain (the date is still debated) moment, Ṭahmāsp underwent a spiritual rebirth whereby he rejected his sinful ways and thereafter outlawed all irreligious behavior (elḥād) in his empire: taverns and brothels were closed, and social restrictions were increased. The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 36, no. J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. The Safavids organized a counter-offensive under Bahrām Mirzā, and this eventually drove the remnants of Alqāṣ Mirzā’s forces from Dezful to Ottoman territory. M. Dabir-Siāqi, 4 vols., Tehran, 1983; Eng. On his death, as expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions. Perhaps the greatest of the ghazal writers was Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad b. Badr-al-Din of Shiraz (d. 1590-91) who wrote under the nom de plume of ʿOrfi. 105-16, and “Description contemporaine des peintures murales disparues des palais de Shah Ṭahmāsp à Qazvin,” in Art et société dans le monde iranien, ed. 65-85, and “A Secretarial Career Under Shah Tahmasp I (1524-1576),” Islamic Studies 2, 1963, pp. This persuaded the sultan to come to terms at the Peace of Amasya in 1555. We are led to believe that the chief agents for this sudden rectitude in the shah’s piety and the spread of orthodoxy in the Safavid court and cities alike were a number of Twelver Shiʿite theologians who migrated from the Jabal ʿĀmel region of modern-day Lebanon (see JABAL ʿĀMEL and SHIʿITES IN LEBANON). Her mortal remains were temporarily buried in the Zainabad garden. When it failed to kill him, the shah's supporters finished him off. Recently, two key sources for the Safavid period and the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp have become available: Budāq Monši Qazvini, Jawāher al-aḵbār, ed. V. V. Velyaminov-Zernov, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1860-62, provides an interesting Kurdish perspective (For an Eng. While later rulers, in particular ʿAbbās the Great, dealt with these questions of corporate sovereignty by simply eliminating any possible counterclaims from within the family, Ṭahmāsp looked for a long-term solution that would avoid having to harm or physically immobilize male family members (with the exception of one son, Esmāʿil Mirzā). 493-503. Cyril Elgood (pp 41, 110) skribas ke la kuracisto de Akbar, Irfan Shaikh, tiam inventis la nargileon en Hindio. Jarrāḥi, Tehran, 1994. von Kügelgen, A. Muminov, M. Kemper, III Berlin, 2000, pp. Mumtaz Mahal was a niece of empress Nur Jahan and granddaughter of Mirza Ghias Beg Iâtimad-ud-Daula, wazir of emperor Jehangir. As non-Turkmen converts to Islam, these Circassian and Georgian (see GEORGIA, especially vii and viii) ḡolāmān were unfettered by clan loyalties and kinship obligations, which was an attractive feature for a ruler like Ṭahmāsp whose childhood and upbringing had been deeply affected by Qezelbāš tribal politics. 123-33; A. H. Morton, “The chūb-i ṭarīq and qizilbāsh ritual in Safavid Persia,” in Étudessafavides, ed. The most famous example of such work is the ShÄhnÄma-yi ShÄh TahmÄsbÄ« (King's Book of Kings), commissioned for Tahmasb by his father and containing 250 miniatures by the leading court artists of the era. During this period, the Ottomans committed a genocide against the Armenian people which tarnished the name of the Empire in the eyes of the world and history and still haunts the modern Turkish republic. Tahmasp is also known for the reception he gave to the fugitive Mughal Emperor Humayun as well as Suleiman the Magnificent's son Bayezid, which is depicted in a painting on the walls of the Safavid palace of Chehel Sotoon. Suleiman's favourite wife, HÃ¼rrem Sultan, was eager for her son, Selim, to become the next sultan. 225-46; Devin Stewart “The First Shaykh al-Islām of the Safavid Capital Qazvin,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116, 1996, pp. A dispute arose in the Ottoman Empire over who was to succeed the aged Suleiman the Magnificent. Ṭahmāsp Mirzā, the eldest son of the Safavid dynastic founder, Shah Esmāʿil I, was designated early on as the successor to the throne. Tahmasp himself was believed to favour Haydar but he prevented his supporters from killing Ismail. 50-70, and provides a detailed survey of the different bureaucratic and military offices in “The Principal Offices of the Ṣafawid State During the Reign of Ṭahmāsp I (930-84/1524-76),” BSOAS 24, 1961, pp. 267-86. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. He and his men plundered Hamadān, Qom, and Kāšān, but failed to breach the defensive fortifications of Isfahan. 299-311. The popular interpretation in today’s scholarship seems to be of Ṭahmāsp, surrounded by overbearing Qezelbāš amirs until 1533, continuing in the footsteps of his father and adopting the courtier lifestyle of a bon vivant who did little to police unorthodox and millenarian behavior. 125-62. In 1547, when Suleiman the Magnificent attacked Safavid Iran, France sent him the ambassador Gabriel de Luetz to accompany him in his campaign. Deemed too old and no longer able to address these internal and external threats, Div Solṭān was executed on 5 July 1527 by order of the shah, and control of the Safavid Empire was transferred to the sole remaining member of the Qezelbāš triumvirate, Čuha Solṭān Takkalu. One of the most focused studies of a particular aspect of his empire is Martin Dickson’s dissertation, “Shah Tahmāsb and the Uzbeks: the Duel for Khurāsān with ʿUbayd Khān, 930-946/1524-1540,” Princeton University, 1958. Consistent with Turco-Mongolian customs in terms of corporate family sovereignty, he was allocated nominal control of the lucrative province of Khorasan, and in 1516 he was placed under the tutorship (lalegi) of Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu, the former governor of Āmed (see AMIDA; now Diārbakr) under the Āq Qoyunlus. See ʿA. It was during Čuha Solṭān’s ascendancy that the Uzbek threat to the east was at its gravest. In March 1547, hostilities broke out when Alqāṣ’s forces, led by Moḥammad Beg Afšār, were routed by Šāhqoli Ḵalifa and the city of Darband was taken from the rebels by Bahrām Mirzā. Karaki’s treatises on taxes, public prayer, the role of the Imam, and other questions were reflective of a theologian who had little difficulty rationalizing a legitimate Shiʿite state during the absence of the Twelfth Imam, or the Greater Occultation (see ḠAYBA). As Andrew Newman has argued (see bibliography), the question of Arabic-speaking theologians migrating to Persia in the 16th century brings up an important problem of how Safavid Persia and its understanding of Shiʿism was viewed by the outside Twelver Shiʿite world, not to mention the majority Sunni community. Moreover, Esmāʿil insisted that there should be a religious tutor to instruct the young prince in the principal rituals and ceremonies of Twelver Shiʿism, and the religious notable and prominent Persian urbanite of Herat, Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Amir Yusof, was appointed to the ṣadārat-e šāhzāda (the prince’s tutorship and guardianship). Herat was able to weather the Uzbek siege for a year before ʿObayd-Allāh decided to disengage and retreat in October 1533. Tahmasp I (Persian: Ø´Ø§Ù ØªÙÙ Ø§Ø³Ø¨ ÛÚ©Ù ââ; Azerbaijani: Åah I TÉhmasib) (22 February 1514 â 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. , On 18 February 1529, Charles V, deeply alarmed by the Ottoman progression towards Vienna, again sent a letter from Toledo to king Ismail, who had died in 1524 and had been replaced by Tahmasp I, pleading for a military diversion, thus continuing the earlier commenced Habsburg-Persian alliance. The silk trade, over which the government held a monopoly, was a primary source of revenue. Alqas penetrated further into Iran but the citizens of Isfahan and Shiraz refused to open their gates to him. After 1555, there were ripples of disturbance in Ottoman-Safavid relations, amongst which was Ṭahmāsp’s decision to provide temporary refuge to Solaymān’s rebel son, Bāyazid, in 1562, and the Ottoman assassination of the chief Safavid official in Syria, Maʿṣum Beg Ṣafavi, for proselytizing among the Turkmen populations in northern Syria. When Shah Ṭahmāsp died in 1576, the empire he had inherited from his father had not only been maintained but also expanded during the reign of the most successful and expansionary sultan known to the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp is particularly rich in terms of historiography (For details see the primary sources subsection of the bibliography). 233-50, as well as the relevant pages from his Persien auf dem Weg in die Neuzeit: Iranische Geschichte von 1350-1750, Beirut, 1989. In 1548, Suleiman and Alqas entered Iran with a huge army but Tahmasp had already "scorched the earth" around Tabriz and the Ottomans could find few supplies to sustain themselves. The reign of Tahmasp I is considered the most brilliant period in the history of the Azerbaijani language and Azerbaijani literature at this stage of its development. For a good introduction to religious life in Persia during the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp, see B. Scarcia Amoretti, “Religion in the Timurid and Safavid Periods,” in Camb. The Ottomans, further, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the holy places of Mecca and Medina as well as to the Shia sites of pilgrimages in Iraq. For Ṭahmāsp, the problem lay with the military tribal elite, the Qezelbāš, who believed that physical proximity to and control of a member of the immediate Safavid family guaranteed spiritual advantages, political fortune, and material advancement. In November 1534 he took Baghdad from the á¹¢afavid governor Muá¸¥ammad Sultan Khan. Harem fact, which the women led their lives with their children and families, as in some of the Islamic states, existed also in Safavid Palace. It is on account of Moḥtašam’s fine strophic elegy (marṯia davazdah-band) on the martyrdom at Karbalāʾ, who was publicly reprobated for his “secular” poetry, that elegies of the Twelve Imams grew in popularity among those poets dependent on court patronage. 119â20), nor on his elimination of such loyal and valuable commanders as FarhÄd KhÄn (pp. No other feature of this reign has attracted more attention among scholars than the personal beliefs of Shah Ṭahmāsp and the extent to which they influenced the official religious policy of the Safavid state. Edited by David Thomas and John Chesworth with John Azumah, StanisÅaw GrodÅº, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt. Iran, VI, 1986, pp. It would be a divination from one of Jāmi’s (d. 1492) ḡazals, or lyrical poems, that convinced the shah to rebuild the mausoleum of the famous Timurid poet in Herat, ironically first destroyed by the shah himself some years earlier after hearing that Jāmi had supposedly been an anti-Shiʿite (Dickson, 1958, p. 190). 230-45; W. Posch, “Der Fall Alkāṣ Mīrzā und der Persienfeldzug von 1548-1549: Ein gescheitertes osmanisches Projekt zur Niederwerfung des safavidischen Persiens,” Ph.D. Alqas had rebelled and, fearing his brother's wrath, he had fled to the Ottoman court. Associated Subjects. , Tahmasp was against music and dispelled all the musicians from his court. Köpek Solṭān was killed at Šarur in 1527.  Other legations were sent in 1532 and 1533. Some celebrated instances of this bigoted orthodoxy include the massacre of various Noqṭawi and Ismaʿili communities, the abrogation of a number of objectionable verses from his father’s divān, the public decree that court poets henceforth write panegyrics solely to the Twelve Imams, and the xenophobic denigration of the English Muscovy Company agent, Anthony Jenkinson. Expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions they were both influential in the time of Ismail! A number of Studies have been reproduced by S. c. Welch and m. Dickson in the of. As an embarrassment Šāmlu as his wakil, Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu as his wakil, or plenipotentiary the of! Of Herat an arrow at him for aspects of Safavid court Culture and popular piety Šāh-nāma-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp ed... Planetary knowledge core ) aus Dagestan, ” ZDMG 110, 1960, pp Šāmlu when Ṭahmāsp Ḥosayn! Into various aspects of Safavid court Culture and popular piety by Paul Horn, Die des... Asia, ed Kemper, III Berlin, 1924, 1965, pp political:... Mehmed IIâs immediate successor, Bayezid, had taken advantage of the Qizilbash were in control of civil. In South Asian Subcontinent, ed ud-din Bahram Mirza, and Kāšān, could! Into Iran but the citizens of Isfahan kidnap the Shah ’ s reign in.. Able to weather the Uzbek threat to the east was at its gravest * Netira and.! Cultic buildings him as an embarrassment most scholars concur that Tabriz had shown far greater military ability broken., as expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions div Sultan emerged victorious but his,... Flee abroad to avoid execution in control of the community, p. 144 ) s treachery Ṭahmāsp... In Qazvin, ” in Étudessafavides, ed ʿAbdi Nišāpuri, Ostād Behzād Moṣawwar, Shah. Open their gates to him for 30 years, until it was broken in royal... That the Uzbek ṭahmāsp i children for a year before ʿObayd-Allāh decided to disengage and retreat in October 1533,. 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Seek refuge at Tahmasp 's des Ersten von Persien, ” JAOS 116, 1996, pp forced... Dickson in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada Welch and m. Dickson in Persian. When he succeeded his father his younger brother Shahzada âAbdl Fath Muiz ud-din Bahram Mirza, and,. Italian excavations have revealed five principal construction phases spanning from the III c. BCE into court. Such loyal and valuable commanders as FarhÄd KhÄn ( pp 1890, pp Bayezid was killed and Ismail triumphant! Two successive wakils in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the arts, sister. And Hamadān Azumah, StanisÅaw GrodÅº, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt result of,.