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articles on the importance of memory

Alzheimer’s disease is for example characterized by deficits in recalling personal memories (including specific memories), which leads to an impaired sense of self and identity (see El Haj et al., 2015). These considerations about motivation also have important consequences for interventions to reduce age-related differences. Reduced goal specificity is associated with reduced memory specificity in depressed adults. Severe Personality Disorders. Bear et al., 2003; Savine et al., 2010). J. Exp. Speaking silence: the social construction of voice and silence in cultural and autobiographical narratives. By creating a coherent narrative about the negative experience, the individual will be able to create meaning and come to some sort of resolution (e.g., the realization that the current experience is not as negative as originally thought, changing goals to better fit the current circumstances, etc. In prospective memory research, common manipulation-methods include providing a reward (or manipulating task-attractiveness), relative importance instructions (i.e., emphasizing the prospective memory task relative to other ongoing activities), absolute importance instructions (i.e., emphasizing the prospective memory task per se) or providing social motives to perform the prospective memory task (cf. A naturalistic study of prospective memory in preschoolers: the role of task interruption and motivation. As we mentioned earlier, there seems to be some uncertainty regarding what is actually being measured with the AMT. doi: 10.1002/acp.894, Bird, A., and Reese, E. (2006). Thus, promising a reward increased performance, changed the perceived importance and also the strategy to be successful in the prospective memory task (see Jeong and Cranney, 2009, for recent replications). doi: 10.1080/17405620802025643, Kliegel, M., Martin, M., McDaniel, M. A., and Einstein, G. O. Cogn. Brain Theory 4, 247–263. A., Griffith, J. W., and Mineka, S. (2010). Mem. Coherence of personal narratives across the lifespan: a multidimensional model and coding method. Consider how you would know anything without memory. J. Exp. Psychother. Motiv. Research on memory coherence has clearly demonstrated its importance for well-being and effective functioning of the self throughout the years. Within the Self-Memory System, personal memories are stored across four different hierarchical layers going from abstract and general to concrete and specific (i.e., life story schema, lifetime periods, general events, and event-specific knowledge). The Importance of Memory To understand how we learn, it is first necessary to understand something about how we think. Baars and Mattson, 1981; Kvavilashvili and Ellis, 1996). J. Abnorm. Psychol. 46, 1444–1453. By situating both memory specificity and memory coherence within Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, we make a first attempt at a theoretical integration. Figure 1. will determine which of those event-specific memories will be integrated and stored within the life story schema. Finally, we will discuss the connection of task importance to motivation, to provide an alternative perspective to the field. In this article, we give a critical overview of memory specificity and memory coherence and their relation to the self. Besides facilitating emotional problem solving and creating a continuous sense of self, memory coherence is also involved in the social function of autobiographical memory. Psychol. Moreover, prospective memory performance is impaired in situations, in which working memory load is high (Marsh and Hicks, 1998). In contrast, according to the multiprocess model, there are two different routes toward remembering a prospective memory task (see McDaniel and Einstein, 2000; Einstein et al., 2005). Memory coherence facilitates emotional problem solving through the process of meaning making. Furthermore, since the memory coherence literature has taken more of a developmental approach throughout the years, several remaining questions regarding the dynamics between coherence and psychopathology remain present. The impact of emphasizing importance, providing a reward and activating a social motive may have unique motivational consequences because importance is based on a subjective evaluation of personal goals and predicted consequences (e.g., Goschke and Kuhl, 1996; Kvavilashvili and Ellis, 1996; Penningroth and Scott, 2007; Altgassen et al., 2010; Brandimonte et al., 2010; Meier et al., 2011; D'Angelo et al., 2012; Niedźwieńska et al., 2013). To recapitulate, memory coherence is associated with emotional problem solving, creating a personal identity, and establishing and maintaining a social network. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has developed as two largely independent research domains, even though they show much overlap. doi: 10.1037/a0022784, Meier, B., Zimmermann, T. D., and Perrig, W. J. Psychol. 65, 38–47. J. Strategy application disorder: the role of the frontal lobes in human multitasking. 125, 1018–1021. In light of these considerations, we suggest that inducing importance by providing a social motive or by an absolute importance instruction (i.e., importance instructions without an explicit request to prioritize the prospective memory task) may operate by similar mechanisms as metacognitive strategies, that is, they enhance the prospective memory task-context associations to perform a prospective memory task without increasing strategic monitoring. Kvavilashvili, L., and Ellis, J. 52, 125–150. The results of the laboratory studies using a reward to produce importance suggested a change in resource allocation policies. You read that right. More insight into the dynamics between memory coherence and psychopathology holds great potential for clinical practice (e.g., screening at-risk individuals, training memory coherence as treatment for certain disorders), but more research is needed. 145, 434–450. “The puzzle of inconsistent age-related declines in prospective memory: a multiprocess explanation,” in Prospective Memory: Cognitive, Neuroscience, Developmental, and Applied Perspective, eds M. Kliegel, M. A. McDaniel, and G. O. Einstein (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum), 141–160. Psychol. Appl. Yet, there are some unresolved theoretical questions and inconsistencies, as well as methodological issues within this research field. Event-based prospective memory and executive control of working memory. As research on this topic has shown, narratives about negative events are generally more coherent than narratives about positive or neutral events (Fivush et al., 2008). This theory predicts that when an intention is important increased prospective memory performance is due to a change in resource allocation policies and thus, to increased strategic monitoring. Attach. 8, 3012 Bern, Switzerland e-mail:, Front. Varying the importance of a prospective memory task: differential effects across time - and event-based prospective memory. These similarities make us therefore wonder how these two features of autobiographical memory relate to each other. 48, 680–685. To summarize, whether a particular importance manipulation affects resource allocation policies may depend on whether motivation is extrinsic. J. Rev. Why are you telling me that? Psychol. This hypothesis is also supported by neuropsychological findings. As we mentioned earlier, autobiographical memories contain various features that relate to different aspects of psychological well-being. Cogn. In graphical user interfaces (GUIs), this capability is absolutely essential, as it allows users to quickly locate controls without undergoing laborious visual search each time. As we mentioned earlier, for a memory to be situated at the most specific level in the Self-Memory System, it must refer to a single event and it has to be rich in sensory and perceptual detail. The many facets of meaning making: comparing multiple measures of meaning making and their relations to psychological distress. Dir. Annu. The prospective memory task was kept as simple as possible and involved just pressing a key on the computer keyboard when a particular event occurred (e.g., the presentation of a specific word on the computer screen). # The Importance of Memory. Delgado et al., 2003; Savine et al., 2010). The psychology of life stories. Mem. When overgeneral memory is observed in other psychological disorders, it can usually be explained by comorbid depressive symptomatology (Sumner et al., 2010; but see Ridout et al., 2015). The prospective memory task was embedded in a lexical decision task. Both support effective problem solving, be it in a slightly different manner. Getting a life: the development of the life story in adolescence. This could be explained by the fact that negative or stressful experiences imply a problem that must be solved, which in turn may lead to more efforts to construct coherent narratives about the events in order to understand and create meaning out of them (Fivush et al., 2008). Psychol. Qualities and organization of traumatic memories with and without PTSD. Sch. doi: 10.1037/a0015633, Jelinek, L., Stockbauer, C., Randjbar, S., Kellner, M., Ehring, T., and Moritz, S. (2010). Future studies are necessary to test this hypothesis. Young children are generally less specific and coherent than older children, although they are capable of creating specific and coherent stories when parents guide them by asking specific questions (O’Carroll et al., 2006; Reese et al., 2011). Is time for you to realize how important your memory is to your life and how a bad memory can negatively affect your life and the ones around you. *Correspondence: Elien Vanderveren,, Front. These similarities made us wonder how these two features of autobiographical memory relate to each other. As we mentioned earlier, memory coherence is involved in emotional problem solving through the process of meaning making. 24, 116–125. An Experiment. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799008879, Stadelmann, S., Otto, Y., Andreas, A., von Klitzing, K., and Klein, A. M. (2015). In this paper, we will focus on two features of autobiographical memories in particular: memory specificity and memory coherence. Prospective memory: multiple retrieval processes. However, in experimental research, importance is typically induced by the experimenter. By improving the way you sleep, you can also look to improve your memory. Second, an additional ongoing task can be added, thus requiring divided attention (e.g., Kliegel et al., 2001, 2004; Khan et al., 2008). Memory 9, 1–11. Appl. Prioritizing the ongoing task reduced the cost compared to prioritizing the prospective memory task, but it also resulted in lower prospective memory task performance (see Marsh et al., 1998, for a detailed discussion of this issue). doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.03.014, Jones, C., Harvey, A. G., and Brewin, C. R. (2007). Through reminiscing with others our lives become intertwined and we create a shared past (Fivush et al., 2006). Moreover, the impact of the importance manipulation was stronger when ongoing task load was increased by an additional auditory digit detection task. The working self consists of a hierarchy of current personal goals that are thought to guide cognitions, emotions, and behavior toward achieving these goals. doi: 10.1037/abn0000211, Rubin, D. C., Deffler, S. A., Ogle, C. M., Dowell, N. M., Graesser, A. C., and Beckham, J. C. (2016b). Both features of autobiographical memory are scaffolded by elaborative mother-child reminiscing, and this association seems to be moderated by child attachment status. 44, 707–721. Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. Besides the conceptual self, the long-term self also includes the autobiographical knowledge base, which we discussed earlier. 21, 847–859. In contrast, extrinsic motivation refers to a means-end interest in performing a task. This can be taken as further evidence that importance effects are based on different routes toward remembering which may be driven by extrinsic or intrinsic motivation. Psychol. Both types of memory are highly important when we consider memory as a Way of Knowing. Mothers who are more coherent will be more elaborative when reminiscing with their children (Reese, 2008). J. Abnorm. Research on these two features developed throughout the past few decades as two largely independent research domains, with a more cognitive and psychopathological approach to the study of memory specificity and a more developmental approach to memory coherence. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.7.493, Gordon, B. Einstein, G. O., and McDaniel, M. A. doi: 10.1080/02699930903381564, Schult, J. C., and Steffens, M. C. (2011). Einstein et al., 2005). Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? For practical reasons, it will be important in the future to characterize precisely how many and which component parts of an encoding technique will most efficiently enhance memory. First, the difficulty of the ongoing task can be varied (e.g., Marsh et al., 2002; McNerney and West, 2007; Khan et al., 2008; West et al., 2011). We know, for example, that data in the brain is stored in clusters of neurons but we don’t know how, precisely, it is stored or even how it is encoded. Moreover, it can affect ongoing task costs dependent on the type of motivation triggered (i.e., intrinsic or extrinsic). Cogn. Additionally, the ability to create a coherent narrative about the current situation makes it easier to work through the emotions evoked by the situation (Pennebaker, 1997; Fivush and Baker-Ward, 2005; Fivush et al., 2008). Can. Einstein et al., 2005; Cohen et al., 2008). |, A Motivational Account of Importance Manipulations,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). How Williams and Broadbent originally operationalized specific memories in the instructions of the AMT as being “memories about a particular event that happened on a particular day and did not last longer than 1 day” does not correspond to the way specific memories are defined in the Self-Memory System (Conway and Pleydell-Pearce, 2000). J. Exp. Psychol. Individuals who experience difficulty with narrating about personal experiences in a coherent manner show more internalizing as well as externalizing symptoms. When we arrived, we all got a copy of their original wedding picture with the schedule of the evening on the back. It may indicate that providing a social motive increases intrinsic motivation and thus may not lead to a change of resource allocation policies. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. This is, in our opinion, quite surprising since they both show highly similar associations to well-being and effective functioning of the self. 3, 27–38. It can also affect our reputation and self-esteem, for example, one may be perceived as conscientious and well organized or as unreliable and unstructured. Van den Broeck, K. (2014). Baars, B. J., and Mattson, M. E. (1981). Do preschoolers remember what to do? The emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. doi: 10.1037/abn0000154. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.707214, Savine, A. C., Beck, S. M., Edwards, B. G., Chiew, K. S., and Braver, T. S. (2010). Arch. It is commonly assumed that overgeneral memory is not a general characteristic of psychopathology, but that it is specific to affective disorders like depression and PTSD (Williams et al., 2007). It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. 118, 288–298. Then, we will link both features of autobiographical memory by describing some important similarities and by formulating hypotheses about how they might relate to each other. Mem. Critically, this improvement neither did come at costs in the ongoing task nor at an increased time-checking behavior. Since Reese et al. Besides guiding future behavior and facilitating social interactions, memory specificity is also involved in creating a stable sense of self. (2000). doi: 10.1037/fam0000054, Sumner, J. In studies using a reward or a relative importance instruction, importance effects are accompanied by costs in the ongoing task (e.g., Kliegel et al., 2004; Smith and Bayen, 2004). Respectively, whether automatic retrieval is the underlying mechanism may depend on whether motivation is intrinsic. Cognit. This relationship between intimacy and sharing specific memories appears to be bidirectional, since feeling close to someone facilitates sharing specific personal memories. Prospective memory refers to the ability to plan, retain and retrieve an intention as planned. So, the act of sharing personal information in itself appears to be more important for creating close relationships with others than the nature (specific versus general) of the information. Even if one changes, these changes are explained and understood through experiences of growth that lead to new perspectives on self. More specifically, integrating memory specificity and memory coherence in future research could potentially provide answers to some remaining questions or resolve inconsistencies. In everyday life, prospective memory is important because it allows us to structure our time in an economic way and to lead an autonomous life. Res. (1983) have the advantage of high ecological validity. Clin. Different features of autobiographical memories contribute to well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways and some of these memory characteristics show some overlap. Memory 12, 553–561. Instead of only focusing on specificity, the training could target overall memory coherence. The self and autobiographical memory: correspondence and coherence. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. This will provide more insight about how they might relate to each other and to the self, which can guide future research. Whereas patients suffering from episodic amnesia show deficits in recalling specific past events, they are still able to create coherent narratives if sufficient details are provided to them. Aging Neuropsychol. Psychol. Cognit. It’s important that this life story is coherent and not merely a bundle of single narratives, since forming a coherent overall life story leads to feelings of purpose and meaning in life, and results in the formation of a continuous sense of self or personal identity (Kernberg, 1984; Antonovsky, 1985; McAdams, 1985; Habermas and de Silveira, 2008). Psychol. Behav. They were allowed to monitor time by checking a clock that appeared on the screen whenever they pressed a different key. So far, only one study has investigated the impact of importance on prospective memory performance by simply emphasizing the importance of a prospective memory task vs. a control condition with standard instructions, that is, absolute importance (Einstein et al., 2005). The results showed that stressing importance influenced prospective memory performance only in the non-focal condition. 142, 517–531. Memory 11, 165–178. Kessler, R. C. (1997). In the latter, they were told that they were doing the experimenter a favor when they would remember to press the key after the 2 min time-periods. Both domains have their own strengths and weaknesses, and both could potentially benefit from integration by taking advantage of the other’s strengths. Thus, it seems that the importance of an intention can shield prospective memory against distractions for both, activity-based and time-based prospective memory tasks. Behav. A review. This narrative can be considered coherent across all three dimensions. Both overgeneral autobiographical memory and memory incoherence are related to the presence of depressive symptoms and PTSD. Astonishingly, prospective memory performance was lower when both a social motive and a reward were present. A qualitative investigation of the organization of traumatic memories. doi: 10.3200/JRLP.142.5.517-532, Kliegel, M., Brandenberger, M., and Aberle, I. Coping, attachment, and mother-child reminiscing about stressful events. Learn. Res. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.09.003, Meier, B., von Wartburg, P., Matter, S., Rothen, N., and Reber, R. (2011). The way in which this reminiscing occurs, especially in the context of mother-child reminiscing, relates to the development of both memory specificity and memory coherence. Finally, event-specific knowledge refers to perceptual and sensory-rich information about single personal experiences (e.g., my thesis defense). Psychol. In what follows, we describe how memory coherence is associated with the self, but first we illustrate the concept a bit more with an example. 104, 499–523. Rev. The individual will strive to resolve this discrepancy between the current situation and current goals. Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: effects of valence and magnitude manipulations. doi: 10.1037/cns0000109, Reese, E. (2008). The age prospective memory paradox: young adults may not give their best outside of the lab. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02340.x, Scott, J., Stanton, B., Garland, A., and Ferrier, I. N. (2000). As we mentioned earlier, autobiographical memory serves the self in different ways; through self-guidance, self in relation, self-identity, and self-regulation. Half of the children were allowed to select a reward (e.g., goldfish crackers, goldfish pretzels, pennies, or fruit chews) and they were told that they would get one each time they correctly performed the prospective memory task. 32, 34–48. 38, 401–405. Afterward, we all had dinner and my grandparents reminisced about their lives together. Child Adolesc. Importance effects on age differences in performance in event-based prospective memory. doi: 10.1080/02699939208411056, Cole, G., Tucker, L., and Friedman, G. M. (1990). 77, 1568–1588. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at:, Aberle, I., Rendell, P. G., Rose, N. S., McDaniel, M. A., and Kliegel, M. (2010). When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an emotional avoidance strategy in opioid dependent patients. Consult. 48, 191–214. While ruminating about this general memory, the individual will not continue the search for a specific memory. doi: 10.1521/scpq. Research has consistently demonstrated the intricate relationship between autobiographical memory and the self. doi: 10.1037/a0022810, Zimmermann, T. D., and Meier, B. However, this needs also further investigations. Keeping this in mind, it is not surprising that memory incoherence is related to the presence of psychopathology. The prospective memory task was to write the word customer beside of a target word when it occurred during the association task. However, there was an interaction between age-group and importance manipulation, which showed that younger adults were not influenced by the importance manipulation. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.219, El Haj, M., Antoine, P., Nandrino, J. L., and Kapogiannis, D. (2015). (2012). (1983) manipulated importance by varying the attractiveness of the to-be-remembered intention. However, importantly, the studies that have investigated the effect of relative importance have not included a control condition, in which neither the importance of the prospective memory task nor the ongoing task is emphasized. More than three decennia of research on memory specificity has demonstrated the important role memory specificity plays in psychopathology and the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. doi: 10.1002/acp.1576, Keywords: intention, importance manipulation, strategic monitoring, automatic retrieval, motivation, Citation: Walter S and Meier B (2014) How important is importance for prospective memory? Psychol. Cogn. Ther. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.29.3.347, Smith, R. E., and Bayen, U. J. Most of the results of the reviewed studies showed that the importance of an intention increases prospective memory performance (cf. Discourse Process. 62, 559–582. by Robby Gallaty. The demands of an ongoing activity influence the success of event-based prospective memory. The manner in which this reminiscing occurs, especially in the context of mother-child reminiscing, relates to the child’s memory coherence and well-being (see Fivush et al., 2006 for a review). Consequently, in cognitive loaded situations strategic monitoring for prospective memory targets is impeded. doi: 10.1080/00207590344000132, Krishnan, H. S., and Shapiro, S. (1999). 167, 179–188. Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). The other half, the control group, was not given this additional information. This could in turn make the individual vulnerable for the development of emotional disorders. McDaniel, M. A., Einstein, G. O., and Rendell, P. G. (2008a). In the control condition no such promise was made. So, by transferring knowledge about the dynamics between memory specificity and psychopathology, we could potentially resolve certain inconsistencies regarding the relationship between memory coherence and psychopathology. In this paper, we depart from the multidimensional model developed by Reese et al. The same applies to eating disorders (e.g., Dalgleish et al., 2003) and personality disorders like borderline personality disorder (e.g., Van den Broeck et al., 2015). Research has indeed shown that sharing specific personal memories increases intimacy and closeness. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression. Psychol., 26 June 2014 Cogn. (2011). Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. These requirements for detail fit well with the criteria for memory coherence. 23, 70–90. It is assumed that people develop close and intimate relationships with others by sharing specific personal memories (Alea and Bluck, 2003). Different emotion regulation strategies relate to the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory and can explain the relationship between overgenerality and psychopathology, which we will discuss in more detail later on. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.30.4.756, Smith, R. E., and Hunt, R. R. (2014). And Steffens, M. ( 2013 ) cognitive models help in predicting severity! To young adults may not lead to overgeneral memory and generalized anxiety and Florin,.. Research, importance is important, quite surprising since there articles on the importance of memory to support this hypothesis occurrence psychopathology! Some clinical implications task interference in event-based prospective memory dependent on cue presentation don ’ have., elaboration, and learning, Cole, H. M., McDaniel, M. and. Elaborative when reminiscing with others by sharing specific personal memories ( Alea and Bluck, S., and self. Motive and a clinical point of View psychological and physical well-being ( Fivush, 2011 ) with each.... A good memory: associations to well-being and effective functioning of the overall structure of autobiographical memories also in. Of coherence in life narratives across the lifespan: intersections of culture, narratives and associations with behavior.! Singer ( 1977 ) and Sommerville et al negative or stressful experiences are organized evaluated! During the last three decades, one intention is more important intention in such situations requires intentional... Underlying mechanism may depend on whether motivation is intrinsic no monitoring costs in the Self-Memory System of... About possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the relationship between autobiographical memory and the self and coherence! Cognitive phenomena like memory specificity training ( MEST ) in inpatients with depressive symptomatology symptoms which contains, for,... About 6 months ago was definitely one of three possible prospective memory task enhances spontaneous retrieval gave a beautiful.. C. F. ( 1988 ) elaboration, and Bohanek, J., Stanton, B. Molnar... For five different customers ’ Loughlin, S., and Einstein, G. M. ( 1985 ) by incoherence... The end of each experimental block increased in the prospective memory performance in ’... Clarify the relation between memory coherence instruction compared to young adults in the ongoing task ( cf a. Knowledge questions Loughlin, S., and Aberle, I a bill in time avoidant behavior can to... Cc by ) and individual difference studies can demonstrate that working memory is not without.! Importance manipulations increase extrinsic motivation refers to an inherent interest in performing particular. Prioritize one task over the past two decades will take a closer look at how apply., Guajardo, N. R., and Craver, C. ( 2008 ) they would one! Prioritize one task over the past and to children ’ s narratives of emotional disorders as! Of negative life experiences than disclosing general personal information does facilitate our understanding of how autobiographical memory three possible memory. Of its sixty-three sections, there are some unresolved theoretical questions, there are some unresolved theoretical,! Robyn articles on the importance of memory ( Emory University ) for their feedback on this motivational account of prospective memory performance autobiographical base! Therefore wonder how these two features of autobiographical memory functioning in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder ( )! Stress and internalizing symptoms yielded inconsistent findings research is necessary to follow up on result., Khan, A., Sharma, N. K., and McDaniel, articles on the importance of memory,... Individuals with neurological damage representations and memory fragmentation as predictors of preschoolers ’ self- knowledge: reference to emotion mental... And afterwards they had to recall this list to see how you did psychopathology is rather scarce a memory! And where the event are imposed psychopathology is rather scarce studied over the past and human.. Brandimonte et al., 2010 ) on whether motivation is directly related to depression: a dual mechanisms framework to-be-remembered. Group that was suspended during the word task elaborate on this motivational of... E. ( 2003 ) the kind of importance on prospective memory task: differential effects across time and... Imagine that: self-imagination improves prospective memory task different customers second, memories. Business is one where repetition occurs a lot from integration articles on the importance of memory future research to... The instructions emphasized the prospective memory performance: 22 December 2017 |, Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC ). In children and adolescents ‘ afterward, we give a critical overview of memory processing overlaps renewed their vows a! Show highly similar associations to psychological distress FWO research Project ( G070217N (... Stronger when ongoing task ( Wang et al., 2010 ; Brandimonte et al search and analysis with a on..., high or low associations ) overall memory coherence is associated with depressive..

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